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Textile testing internship report

Textile testing internship report


ATIRA - Ahmedabad Textile Industry’s Research Association 
UTM - Universal Testing Machine
TCA - Trichloro acetic acid
DCM - Di-chloro methane
DMF - Dimethyl Formalmide
ISO - Indian Standards Organization 

Table of Contents

List of Figures 

List of Abbreviations 

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Company Profile

1.2 Objectives

1.3 Vision & Mission

Chapter 2 Centre of composite

2.1 Introduction to Topic

2.2 Mechanical testing

2.3 Heat and flame

2.4 Electrical Testing

Chapter 3 Textile testing lab

3.1 Introduction 

3.2 Fiber and fabric testing

3.3 Protective Lab

3.4 Geotextile lab 

3.5 Chemical testing

2.4 Wet lab

Chapter 4 Eco lab

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Testing methods

4.2 Industries connect

Chapter 5 Textile testing lab

5.1 Introduction 

5.2 Textile processing

5.2.1 Desizing

5.2.2 Scouring

5.2.3 Bleaching 

5.2.4 Mercerization

5.2.5 Dyeing

5.2.6 Printing

Chapter 6 Data Analysis


Established in 1947 by the textile mills of Ahmedabad as autonomous non-profit R&D institution the activities of the institution cover all aspects from Fiber to finished fabrics in traditional textiles as well as Technical Textiles in the arena of Geo-textiles, Nanoweb technology and Composites. ATIRA is recognized as Research Institution by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) under the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.


The Objective in Tune with the National Policies is:

To help the Indian textile and allied industries, especially ATIRA’s membership organisations to become internationally competitive through:

  • Application-oriented scientific studies.

  • Promotion of professional approach and striving for the highest

    standards of excellence in technology, engineering and management.

  • Proactive initiatives to meet challenges and prepare frontier areas



To make Indian textile manufacturing competitive and sustainable in all possible ways.


To Service the textile industry efficiently and to provide innovative and sustainable solutions that enable the betterment of industry, economy and society.

Centre of Composite

The following type of testing is done on Textile reinforced composite:

After undergoing all the above tests, the composite material can be used in its applications. The composite comes under advanced textile and it is currently in the developing stage.

The composite is made from long filaments bonded by strong binders and covered into the fabric structure.

Mechanical testing:

  • Tensile strength
  • Compression strength
  • Fragile/bending strength
  • Sear strength
  • Hardness
  • Impact strength 

Fig. 1.1 UTM

  • UTM: Dual column mounted electrochemical testing system is used to measure the above first 5 parameters. It stands for Universal Testing Machine. 
  • The first four types of mechanical testing are done in UTM

  • Wilson hardness tester HDT 3ViCAT is used for hardness testing. 

Fig. 1.2 Impact strength tester

Heat and flame:

  1. Flame test

  2. Smoke test

  3. Limiting Oxygen Index

Flame test: - UN94 is used for carrying this test. The sample is heated horizontally and vertically. If it catches flame and burns for more than 10 sec, then it is V2 quality, if it burns for 3-10 sec then it is V1 quality and if it doesn’t burn or burns from 0-3 sec then V0 or best rate.

Limiting oxygen index: - It is used to know what percentage of oxygen is required to catch the heat or burn the substance.

For example, if a substance burns at a 5% oxygen requirement, it is dangerous to use.

Smoke test: - This is carried out to check how much and what kind of smoke is released when the substance is burned. If it gives hazardous gases, it is harmful to live beings. Here the concentration is measured in ppm.

Differential scanning calorimeter: - It is used to find the melting and transition temperature of the substance.

For example

➢ The flammability test of curtains in the train is done, if it catches fire then it doesn’t produce too much smoke.

➢Fire suit also undergoes all the above given to know until which temperature the suit can resist the heat.

➢ Heat and flame test is done for safety and hazardous purpose.

Electrical testing:

  1. Dry arc resistance test: - Here current is applied through 2 roads on the material and it is checked to what amount the material can resist.

  2. Dielectric strength: - Here the force in the form of volts is applied and the product is checked to what amount it can hold. The strength is calculated by several volts by thickness (mm). The machine can apply almost 100 kV / 50 MA.

  • ➢  Conditioning machine: The product exhibits different properties under different conditions. So, the product is brought under desired temperature and humidity in this machine.
    The range is from -50°C to 300°C.

  • ➢  U.V. tester – the effect of UV rays on the material is checked here. Like if a product is placed under sunlight then will the colour change be observed for hours in this machine. 


Textile testing lab

▪ Here all kinds of testing related to conventional and technical textiles is done.

▪ Testing of fibres, yarn, fabric, protective suits, modern fabrics, Geo grids and net etc. is carried out in the textile testing lab.

The lab is divided into the following sections:

  • Fibre and fabric testing
  • Protective Lab
  • Geotextile lab
  • Chemical testing
  • Wet lab

Fibre and fabric testing:



Uster Tester 5 is a multi-purpose instrument for testing yarn, roving and sliver .it can measure hairiness, CV%, U% shape, diameter density, optical evenness, imperfection index(ipi),

Thick and thin place, neps etc.


Capacitance-based (capacitive sensor measures the mass variation, not diameter).

Sample length:

• YARN 400 m.
• ROVING 50 m.
• SLIVER 50 m. 



• It is used to measure the seldom occurring yarn faults caused by spinning preparation and spinning
Sample size =100km Speed = 100m/min 
Faults categories =A, B, C, D, E, F, G (THICK FAULTS) H&I (thin faults)
7th class: -A4+B4+C3+C4+D2+D3+D4
8th class: - A2+B4+C2+C3+C4+D2+D3+D4 4th class: - D1+C2+B3+A3
5th class: - A1+A2+B1+B2+C1
16th class: - All addition
Long thick: - E+F+G Long thin: - H1+H2+I1+I2

Its main objective is to find the below characteristics- • Elongation
• Strength
• Fineness
• Color value
• Micronaire
• Maturity index
 • Length
• Uniformity
• Short fibre index
• Moisture regains% 
• Trash%

PRINCIPLE: optical and air pressure.
The HVI spectrogram consists of 4 distinct modules to carry out different analyses:
1. Optical module 
2. Length and strength 
3. UV module
4. Fineness module. 

    HVI Tester
    Fig. 2.2 HVI Tester

    Protective Lab:

  • The fabric used for protection purpose need to be tested and should pass the standards to fulfil safety purpose
  • Here Gloves, Firefighter jackets, seat covers, protective wear testing, and different type of wearable things that are used for protection purposes are tested.
  • a. This test is done on fabric to see if the fabric can withstand fire or not at the surface. This test is done on Flexiburn m/c.
  • 3. Radiant Heat

          • Limited Flame Spread (Surface)

            • This test is done on fabric to see if the fabric can withstand fire or not at the surface. This test is done on Flexiburn m/c.

            • If the suit catches fire in less than 10 sec. then the product doesn’t fulfil the safety requirements.

          • Limited Flame Spread (Edge)

          • When a radiance heat wave comes in contact with a firefighter jacket can it pass through the fabric or not?

          • In this test heat ray is passed to the fabric through a radiant rod at temp 1800-2000 C.

          • Fabric is put in front of radiant rod, Copperplate in front of sample & Flux is up to 20KW/m2, flux is given as per need

          • Time duration is taken to increase temp up to 24C from room temp.

          4. Convective heat

          1. Heatflamecomesindirectcontactwithfabricthroughcircular plate shape

          2. If the fabric burns or catches fire then it is dangerous to use and doesn’t pass the protective parameters.

          5. Heat Resistance

          1. This test is done on fabric to check the shrinkage of fabric due to heat.

          2. For this test, a Binder machine is used.

          3. ISO 17493 method is used for the test.

          4. Fabric is cut 50x50 cm in size and marked 35x35 cm for the check.

          5. Fabric is put in m/c at 180C for 5min according to parameters.

          6. Hot air is passed through the fabric.

          7. Shrinkage/Elongation is checked after fabric removal.

          8. The average change in percentage is measured to check shrinkage

            due to heat. 

          Geotextile Lab:

          • The modern and advanced textile that is used in construction, filtration & separation, and waste containment all comes under geotextile.

          • Research and development are going on in this modern field of textiles.

          • To determine the quality of geo products following testing are


          1. Tensile strength:

            a. The strength of non-woven geo fabric, geo nets, geo grids, etc. is tested on a UTM machine

            b. The tensile strength of geotextile is much more as compared to conventional textile

          2. Puncture test:

            1. Cone drops testing – Here pointed needle is dropped on a fixed geo material with certain pressure from above to check its strength.

            2. CBR and index puncture – A 50mm diameter dial is used and pressure is applied through UTM to check its resistance to tearing. The pressure when the geo product gets torn is checked.

            3. Bursting strength – Here the material is penetrated from below and how much puncture occurs is checked. 

        Fig. 2.3 Puncture test

        3. Water permeability:

        1. In-plane permeability – Here the product is placed inside the water body and load is applied from above and then water flow is passed. It is mostly used in composites.

        2. Through the plane permeability – Here water is passed through the plane of geotextile in presence of a certain load from above.

        3. Constant head – It is placed under constant water flow and the

          permeability is checked. Here the application is for water site construction

        4. Porosity measurement:

        • ▪  Here pore size of non-woven fabric is checked in an apparent opening size machine.

        • ▪  Maximum and minimum pore sizes checked off the fabric

        • ▪  The non-woven fabric here is mostly used with geo grids, net or

          web in sandwich form.

        Chemical Testing:

        • Blend Composition/Analysis Method

        • PH Value

        • Solubility Test

        • Desizing test

        • Scouring loss

        • Fibre Identification

        • Burning Test

        • Water Solubility

        1. Blend Composition/Analysis Method:

          1. It is done to check what percentage of different kinds of fibres are present in the yarn or fabric

          2. The oven machine is used for overheating.

          3. In this moisture, the percentage is tested.

          4. 1 gm of sample piece is taken

          5. And overheat at 105 C in the oven for a minimum of 3 hrs

          6. Remove from oven and cool down sample then measure sample

            2gm and take the percentage

        2. value:

        a. This test is done to measure the PH Value of the material.

        1. Beaker, water, PH meter, and Electro rod are used.

        2. 1gm of sample piece is taken.

        3. Then put 100 ml of distilled water in a beaker.

        4. Then sake it with an electro rod & the pH value is measured

        3. Solubility Test:

        1. This test is done to check cellulose fibre material.

        2. 1gm sample piece is taken and overheated at 105 C for 3 hr.

        3. Put it in 75% Sulphuric acid for 2/3 hrs.

        4. Take a 1:1 ratio of 1mg for 100 ml of acids.

        5. Sake vessel after every 1 hr.

        6. If the sample dissolves then there is the presence of Cellulose fibre.

        4. Desizing test:
        a. This test is done for the removal of size paste from warp yarn from


        5. Scouring loss:

        a. This test is done to check how much material is removed after washing.

        b. It is generally done for wool fabric.

        6. Fibre Identification

        a. Thistestisdoneforfibreidentification.
        b. Sample is taken and put in solution, if the sample dissolves then fibre is identified.

        c. Cotton-75%H2SO4

        1. Viscose - 60% H2SO4

        2. Polyester–25gmTCA+100mlDCM

        3. Wool - 5% NaOH – boil for 10min

        4. Nylon – TCA + DCM & formic acid H2SO4

        5. Acrylic – DMF

        6. Polyproylene – Cyclohexanone

        7. Lycra – DMF – 65C

        8. For Non-woven - 100% H2SO4

        9. Glass – Hydrofloric acid –10min

        10. Polyethene – Xylene

        11. This is a solution in which fibre is identified with the process.

        7. Burning Test

        1. This test is done to check for fibre present in the fabric

        2. In this test, the fabric is fired & then we identified the fabric with the smell


        8. Water Solubility

        1. This test is done to check solubility in water.

        2. 5gm sample piece is taken and kept in 100ml boiling distilled

          water is for 1hr.

        3. Filter after heating, Water heated, evaporate & resided is left

          after dry.

        Wet Lab:

        ➢ Hereafter the washing effect on the fabric is done
        ➢ Color fastness properties to washing, rubbing, and perspiration are tested 
        ➢ Also, shrinkage and elongation are measured after the wash 

          Eco Lab

          • HPLC: - To test Iso proturon & azo free amines Method – EN 14362-13

            AOAC 990

          • Gas chromatography: - tests organics, chlorine, phosphorus, pesticides, residue analysis

            It is done in three ways after liquid identification - ECD
            - NPD
            - FID

          • Liquid chromatography: - APEO, PFCS, Carchogenic, flame retardant dyes - disperse glycols.

          • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: - to test mineral oil and functional group analysis.

          • Heavy metals trace level analysis: -

          • By ICP - inductively coupled plasma & AAS – automatic absorption spectrometer
          • AAS & ICP analysis levels respectively PPM & PPB
          • Determines trace level hazardous heavy metal with acid digestion analysis
          • Heavy metals like Arsenic, Mercury, Sodium, Iron, lead, cadmium, Nickel, copper etc.
          • Wet lab analysis: - by gravimetric, volumetric and spectrophotometry methods
          • And test parameters like AOX, cyanide, phenols, sulfide, sulfite, ammonical nitrogen, LOD, BOD, chlorides, sulphate, ph etc.
          • Ultra violet – visible spectrophotometer: - same like wet lab. it measures test parameters like AOX, cyanide, phenols, sulfide, sulfite, ammonical nitrogen, LOD, BOD, chlorides, sulphate, ph etc. 
          1. Industries connected with eco lab:

          2. Industries connected with eco lab:

          CTD LAB

          CTD testing: To carry out fabric defect analysis, to give solutions and correct suggestions of the problems. It stands for the chemical testing department

          Textile processing:

          o Desizing
          o Scouring
          o Bleaching
          o Mercerization o Dyeing

          o Printing o Finishing


          - Dyes
          - Auxiliaries - Machine
          - Methods

          Machine used:

          • Drying machine 
          • Dyeing machine 
          • Patt machine
          • Printing machine
          • Steam machine

          ➢  Dyeing: It is the process to apply a colourant that is used to impart colour on fibres by a chemical reaction between dyes and fibre.
          ➢  Pigment: It is a particle used to impart colour. The pigment has no affinity (charge) so binders are used. Their size is around 6 microns.
          ➢  Filament: Long continuous fibres are known as filaments. They are rigid in structure
          ➢  Staple: Short or limited-length fibres are stapled fibres. Their properties are softness, air and moist
          ➢  Yarn: the continuous thread that is made from filament or staple fibres is known as yarn.
          ➢  Fabric: The cloth that is made from yarn by weaving or knitting process is known as fabric.
          ➢  Texturising: It means providing a soft and good feel to the fabric. It is termed texturising the yarn.
          ➢  Crimp: Providing curls or wave to the yarn is known as crimp yarn. 


          Dyeing is carried out in 4 steps – Absorption Adsorption

          Diffusion Fixation

          a) Direct dye – it is used on cellulosic fibres. Fastness properties are poor for direct dye.
          b) Reactive dye – it requires alkaline ph so it uses soda ash NaOH.
          c) The disadvantage is hydrolysis.
          a. Direct and reactive dyes are mostly used on cellulosic fibres.
          d)  Acid dye – it gives brilliant and bright colour and it is used mostly on nylon, silk, and wool.
          e)  Basic dye – it is used on the polyamide group. It gives a bright shade
          f)  Metal complex – iron, copper, and magnesium is used in a certain proportion in this method.
          g)  Wet dye – Indigo is used in wet decaying. Fastness properties are best in this type of dye
          h)  Disperse dye – it is used on polyester and nylon 

            Dyeing method

              Dyeing method

              Material to liquor ratio (MLR):
              The ratio of material (yarn/fabric) to the dyes required is known as MLR.
              This ratio is highest in the batch-wise method eg. 1:40 While it is least in the continuous method
              Shade: It is used to explain the colour of textile material.
              Reduction clearing treatment: It is used after dyeing to remove excess dyes or clogging. The chemicals used are Na2S2O4 / NaOH
              Dyeing of polyester and cotton blend:
              1. Single bath method: Reactive and dispersed dyes are mixed here and it gets absorbed on their respective fibres.
              2. Double bath method: Here first cotton fibres are dyed and then the polyester fibre is dyed in two different baths simultaneously.


              ▪  This process is done to remove added size. It is done before the scouring process. It is carried on yarn before weaving. This is carried out with the help of pot skipping, acid or enzyme
              ▪  Tegawa Solution indicates the presence of size For example - Violet – present
              Pale yellow – not present 

              • desizing process
                Fig. 4.1 desizing process

              ➢  This process is used to remove impurities and to make the material water soluble
              ➢  NaOH is used in this process
              ➢ Water drop test is done to check the presence of scouring.
              For example, it absorbs in 3 sec
              It is one of the most important processes 

              • scouring process
              • Fig. 4.2 scouring process 


              • To remove natural colouring matters (discolouration) and make fabric white

              • Oxidative and chloride agents are used

              • Chemicals like H2O2, nascent oxygen, Naocl,

                bleaching powder, Cl2 gas is used


                ➢  It is done to increase the lustrous and dyeability of the material
                ➢  Sodium hydroxide (caustic linge) is used

                Printing: -It is a kind of localized dyeing. Methods:
                1. 2. 3. 4.
                I. II. III. IV. V.
                Block printing Roller printing Screen printing Stensile printing
                Direct style Resist style Butic style Braso style Discharge style

                Data Analysis

                ❖Worked on data analysis of different company products for the last 3 weeks of the internship.
                ❖It includes all the testing parameters for the product.
                ❖It helps in the comparison of various products in terms of qualities like strength, weight, resistance, the effect of UV etc. 
                ❖It provides various ranges and uses of the product.

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