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Printing unit Internship report

Internship report for printing unit (Komal Texfab)

Table of contents

Chapter 1 Comapany Profile.

 Chapter 2 Overview Of Different Department In the Company

  1. 2.1  Garment Merchandiser

  2. 2.1.1 Garment Merchandiser Flowchart

  3. 2.1.2 Types of Sample

  4. 2.1.3 Key Responsibilities Of A Merchandiser

  5. 2.2  Store Department

  6. 2.2.1 Parts Of Trim Store 

  7. 2.2.2 Full Name Of Terminology

  8. 2.2.3 Garment Costing

  9. 2.3  Sampling Department

  10. 2.3.1 Basic Operation Of T-shirt

  11. 2.3.2 Basic Operation Of Bottom 

  12. 2.3.3 Types Of Stitch

  13. 2.3.4 Types Of Seam

  14. 2.4  Laboratory

  15. 2.4.1 Truburst Bursting Strength Machine

  16. 2.4.2 Random Pilling Method Principle 

  17. 2.4.3 Crock Master

  18. 2.4.4 Martindle Pilling Tester

  19. 2.4.5 ICI Pilling Box Tester

  20. 2.5  Exposing Department

  21. 2.5.1 Types Of Methods

  22. 2.6  dyeing Department

  23. 2.6.1 Soft Flow Dyeing Machine

  24. 2.7 Printing Department

  25. 2.7.1 Types Of Print

  26. 2.7.2 Chest Printing

  27. 2.7.3 Types of Chest Printing

  28. 2.7.4 Rotary Printing

  29. 2.7.5 Washing

  30. 2.8 Finishing Process

  31. 2.8.1 Finishing Process

  32. 3.0 Conclusion


Komal Texfab holds a position in India’s one of the leading Process House of Knitting, Dyeing & Printing, right from its inception in the year 1981.

Over the next 3 years, we will reach a turnover of INR 500 Crores and presently have a Capacity of 750 tonnes per month. These figures show our tremendous success and brisk growth.

Our legacy based on ingenuity, vitality & authenticity leads to celebrating progressive and independent thinking. This altogether helps us to go ahead for forward integration from garment to retailing.

We can proudly say that as a vertically integrated proficiently managed unit of Yarns to Garment on one floor we are providing a One-Stop Solution for Dyed / Printed Fabrics and Readymade Garments globally.

Our clientele includes most of the domestic and world-class renowned brands, which are inspiring, and a renewed sense of individuality and freedom in the fashion industry, and we are catering to their needs in all the best possible ways. This shows our spirit of constant adventure...

A seed sown in 1981 as a small hand printing unit at Ahmedabad, has fully flourished today into a global business conglomerate with a strong presence in domains like Knitted Fabrics & Printing (Komal Tex Fab Pvt Ltd), Garmenting (KTF Fashion Pvt Ltd, Komal SEZ, Komal Worldwide Ltd ) & Electro-

Automation Technology (Komal Electro-Tech Pvt Ltd)

Komal World Wide Pvt. Ltd Plant production capacity of up to 25,000 garments/day. The main products in the garment are Ladies' wear and men's wear. The majority of knitted fabrics are used in plants.

Product type: T-shirt, Fashion Top, Kurti, Pajama set, Shorts Set, Sweatshirt, Joggers, Nightwear.


  • To be a leading textile solution provider enterprise across the domestic and global markets by exceeding customer expectations...
  • We are offering custom-made value-added services and solutions to our customers.
  • We are in the continuous process to explore the untapped potential markets & products.
  • We initiate and maximize people's growth.
  • To be an establishment guided by principles.
  • To be an ace superior in Global Textile Industry.
  • We will surmount acquiescence and global quality standards.
  • To be a moralistic, transparent and trustworthy establishment.


Steam boiler with ESP (1 Thermax )(India) Oil boiler (1 Thermax ) (India)
Water (Softing plant / RO plant)
Effluent Treatment plant (Thermax India) Electricity From (Torrent power)


1: Knitting
2: Mercerizing
3: Scouring & Dyeing
4: Padding & Squeezing
5: Drying
6: Gumming & Slitting
7: Printing
8: Steam Ageing & Dyeing 9: Print Washing
10: Compaction
11: Finishing
12: Lab/ QA testing
13: Scouring & Dyeing
14: Inspection


Our client list includes all the major Buying & Export Houses in the country, who in turn serve international brands like Disney Kids, Wal-Mart, David- Taylor, K-mart, Reebok, Chico's, Tommy Hilfiger, Fila, H&M, Next, Nike, Levis, Mango, Ritu Kumar, Zara, Promod, DEPT, Macy’s, Style & Co., Charter

Club, Fast Track, Puma, JC Penny, M&S, ASDA etc to name a few.

The domestic list includes brands like Pantaloons, Reliance, Myntra, May Sixty, Ducati, Life Style/Max, Vishal Mega Mart, Jockey, VIP, Rupa, Lovable, Dixcy, Lux, Neva, Enamor, Amol, Dollar etc.


  • Received Tech Pack & Sample
  • Tech pack & Sample Sent To Sampling Department
  • Sample Sent To Buyer With Test Reports For Approval
  • Send Tech Dept. For Correction
  • Fabric and Trims Ordered After Approval
  • Trims and Fabric Approved
  • OB Received From IED & Production Plan From PPC
  • Package Files Sent To All Dept. With All Details
  • Time And Action Chart Prepared For Orders
  • Package Garment Shipped To Buyer With Tech Pack Copy

Functional Performed By Merchandiser Department
The function performed by the Merchandising department can be broadly

classified under the following headlines

1) Communication 

2) Coordination 

3) Planning
4) Follow up

5) Sourcing
6) Sampling
7) Compliance &
8) Documentation and maintaining records

Types Of Sample

  • Proto Sample
  • Development Sample 
  • Fit Sample
  • PP Sample
  • Shipment Sample 
  • Photoshoot Sample 

The merchandiser performs the following follow-ups:

  • With the buyer to send complete info about the styles
  • With all dept. to check everything is going as planned
  • With buyers to send the raw material for sampling
  • With sampling dept. and seeing that samples are ready
  • With the buyers to send the comments and approvals
  • With production check whether the product is on time so that the bulk delivery schedules are met.

Key Responsibilities of a Merchandiser:

  1. Communication
  2. Coordination
  3. Planning
  4. Follow up
  5. Sourcing
  6. Costing
  7. Negotiation
  8. Sampling
  9. Compliance
  10. Managerial
  11. Decision making
  12. Documentation and maintaining a record 


Merchandiser's role in product development

A merchandiser can have both buyer and seller roles. As a buyer for materials needed in production, his duties might include sourcing vendors, securing samples and communicating between the export house and suppliers. In the seller role, the merchandiser helps buyers with developing merchandiser specifications for export house orders. Export house duties can include developing samples and presentation portfolios used to secure prospective buyers. An educational background in design may be sought for an export merchandiser whose primary duty is to assist clients with product development. In the garment industry, for instance, the merchandiser may help a client develop custom specifications for garment designs, including fabric and colour selection.


  • Order Follow-Up
  • Prepares a timetable during pre-production and production stages
  • Conducts plan visits to follow up on the status of the product/order.
  • Closely monitors the production process and sends progress reports to the 

  • Establishes clear measures for quality control, and affects the same in 

    inspecting all orders placed during production and post-production before leading.
  • Ensures on-time delivery of the goods to the buyer.
  • Negotiates with buyers in case of delay.


  • SELF


  • Fabric Merchandiser is in charge of purchasing the fabric, for sampling as well as bulk purposes.
  • Trims Merchandisers are in charge of purchasing the trims.
  • There are different merchants for organizing interlining, thread, packing material, buttons and zippers etc. The garment merchandiser then fills pattern request forms and sampling request forms and executes the styles for sampling.

    A final sample called the sealer sample or the pre-production sample is made which is sent to the factory for bulk production. During production, if any shortage in fabric or trims or any other problems arises, the merchant is informed, and they acquire more fabric or terms, or under extreme conditions, uniform the buyer for an extension in the delivery date. Market and product merchandising are two main forms of merchandising. These have got various versatile roles. These two forms depend a lot on the hierarchy of merchandising.

Marketing Merchandising
  • Contact with buyers
  • Sending samples
  • Getting approvals & rejections and further communications
  • Payment terms and other negotiations

      Product Merchandising

      • Sourcing of raw material
      • Costing
      • Sample development at various stages
      • Production status
      • Completion of order on time and with required buyer specifications


          One of the major and important departments in any industry is the stores. The department is involved in purchasing the raw materials and required accessories to keep them ready for production with a view not to suffering due to the non-availability of materials at these actual requirements.

          In the garment industry stores maintain fabric, trims and accessories records of all incoming and outgoing materials is the responsibility of the stores.

          Stores normally are the centralized section of fabric stores for the unit after stabilization of the whole unit fabric is ordered by the sourcing department by the purchase order and the receipt in most cases in other words the hierarchy level of the stores is as follows in connection to the decision making. 

          Store at Komal worldwide is divided into two sections:

          • Fabric store
          • Trim store

          The fabric store requirement of a particular order depends on its consumption. The consumption varies with the style and size of the garment. The fabric store can store around 2-3 lacs meters of fabric. 95% of the fabric requirement is procured from Komal texfab Pvt. Ltd. In Narol Ahmedabad.

          The fabric is inspected using 4 – a point defects system. As a norm, 90% of fabric received from the KTF unit is inspected. For other suppliers, 100% of rolls are inspected. And in the Kww fabric store, 20% of the fabric is inspected also.

          The merchandiser sends the purchase order (PO) sheet to the fabric store head. The required number of pieces (garment)n is given in the sheet. After this, the fabric cutting chart is received from the cutting section head. In this chart, the meters of fabric required by the cutting room is given.

          3 % is added as a waste percentage for fabric. 5 % is added for the rejection of garments. Hence, a total of 8% of the order quantity is added. This is the total of fabric required to be ordered from the main stores.

          Shade Band Approval: This chart is received from the merchandiser. This chart contains various details regarding the shades of the fabric. Style no, Buyer, GSM and construction, PO no, Received rolls, Color and code, Supplier Shade.

          This chart contains a swatch of the different shades of the fabric and the code given to them by the buyer and the store in charge.

          Swatch Card: This card contains the details Date, Design no, style no, GSM, Count and construction and buyer name. this card also contains the before and after wash swatches and shade bands of the fabric.

          Sample card: Swatch and sample cards being the same, contains the defect details that are present in the fabric. The common defects observed were:

          Slub, Foreign yarn, Dye Patch, Panton Shade, Stain

          Fusing Details: The sub also stores the fusing materials. They also maintain the fusing details.

          Shrinkage Report: The package file also contains the shrinkage report. This is received from the merchandiser.

          Fabric Quality Inspection Summary: This sheet is received from the merchandiser and is maintained in the package file.

          After the fabric is ordered, the store in charge maintains a daily fabric status report. This report contains the details of the fabric ordered. That is the quantity of the fabric received and the quantity of the fabric that is yet to be received (Balance).

          The stores in charge according to the quantity and the availability of fabric in the store, issue the fabric to the cutting section. The store in charge fills in the rest of the form, the details quantity issued and Dept.

          The fabric is issued in the FIFO order First In First Out. That is, the fabric that is received first from the main stores is issued first to the cutting section.

          There are 2 parts to the trims store.

          • Stitching Part
          • Packing part

          After the trims are received, they are checked and then an Inward challan is made. In the quantity ordered, 3% extra is always added for wastage considerations.

          The inspection of the trims and accessories is done by the supplier itself. Hence, when the trims are received; they are only stored and issued to the production at the trims store.

          However, for buttons counting is done.
          The trims store maintains a trim chart. In This chart are the details-

          • Fabric swatch
          • Fabric code
          • Fabric colour

          Matching thread for the fabric 

          • Labels 
          • Buttons 
          • Zippers
          • Rivets
          • Elastics

          The store then receives the requisition slip containing the details material, Qty. indent (required), Qty. issued and the dept.

          The trims and accessories are then issued to the required dept. as per the required qty.

          The packing part of the trims means the issuing of the trims at the packing stage to be included in the packing. E.g.:- Packing polythene.

          The next form filled out is the trim order completion report (OCR). This form is filled by the trims store head at the dispatch stage of the garment. It contains many details- material, consumption/garment, required, received, consumed, sent, total, balance, and physical balance.

          This report basically gives the number of pieces of trims required and that was received. It also gives the balance that should be left (total received quantity).


          • MOF: Material Order Form
          • MIF : Material Indent Form
          • GOPF: Garment Order Processing Form 
          • TNA: Time And Action
          • GSM: Gram per Square Meter 
          • PPM: Pre-ProductionMeeting 
          • PPS: Pre-Production Sample 
          • FPT: Fabric Processing Test 
          • GPT :GarmentProcessingTest 
          • CMT: Cut Make Trims 
          • SOP: Standard Operating Procedure 
          • FOB: FreeOnBoard
          • BOM: Bill Of Material
          • SAM: Standard Allowed Minute 
          • SPI: Stitches Per Inch
          • DHU: Defective per Hundred Units 
          • GRN: Goods Receipt Note
          • PO: Purchase Order
          • PI: Purchase Invoice
          • SO: Sales Order
          • AQL: Acceptable Quality Level 
          • ASN: AdvancedShippingNote 
          • AOP: All over Print 


          Fabric cost(Dyeing /Printing/Finishing) + Trims cost + Cutting Cost + Stitching cost + Packing cost + Transportation charge +company Profit%

          Calculations: Fabric Consumption marker

          Knitted Fabric in Gram = (Length in meter x Width in meter x GSM ) / (Total no. of Pieces in marker)

          Woven Fabric in Meter = Length in meter / Total no. of Pieces in marker

          Thread Consumption in meter = Thread Consumption per Piece in meter x Total no. of Garment

          Button Line No. = Button Dia(mm) / 0.635
          Thread Ticket (TKT) No. = (1000 x No.of Ply in Thread) / Tex 

          Sampling Department

          A sample is a prototype of a product to be manufactured in the future course of production. It is also called a mock-up of a product and is made to check the design effectiveness and fit of the garment. Sampling is a set of procedures followed to produce various sample styles. It contains activities like making the pattern for the prototype according to the measurement of the sample with the help of machinery and getting buyers' approvals for sample production.

          In an export house, the sampling department plays a vital role in the uplifting of a unit. This department directly coordinates with the merchandising dept. and production dept. sampling is done to see how the product will look when produced in bulk and to check discrepancies in the pattern.

          Sewing Machine Single Needle ,Flat Lock, Over Lock , Bartack Machine

          Sewing Machine Single Needle, Flat Lock, Over Lock, Bartack Machine 

          Single needle machine:-

          • SNLS(Single Needle Lock Stitch)
          • Neck Finish
          • Label Attach
          • Neck Rib Making
          • Company (Brother, Juki) 

          Overlock Machine

          • Shoulder attach
          • Sleeve attach
          • Side seam 
          • Neck rib surging
          • Neck rib attach
          • Company Name (Siruba,Juki,Pegasus)
          Flate Lock Machine
          • Shoulder Finish
          • Neck Binding
          • Neck Cover Seam
          • Hemming
          • Company Name (Pegasus, Siruba)

          Flat Lock Binding Machine Flate 

          Lock Hemming Machine 

          Flate Lock Cover Seam
          Flat Seamer Cylinder Bed
          Flat Seamer Flate Bed
          Button Hole
          Button Stitch
          Bartack Machine
          Zigzag Machine
          Heat Transfer Label Machine 

          Basic Operation of T-Shirt
          • Shoulder attached O/L
          • Sleeve attached O/L
          • Side Seam / Out Seam O/L
          • Sleeve Hemming F/L
          • Bottom Hemming F/L
          • Neck Rib Making O/L
          • Neck Rib attached O/L
          • Neck Binding F/L
          • Neck Cover Seam F/L
          • Neck Finish S/N

          Basic Operation of Bottom

          • Pocket Making O/L

          • Pocket attached on front O/L
            • Pocket finish S/N
              • Front rise attach O/L
                • Back rise attach O/L
                  • Side seam /out Seam O/L
                    • In Seam O/L
                      • Elastic band making S/N
                        • Elastic covering F/L
                          • Elastic band attached O/L
                            • Bottom Hemming F/L 

                            Needle size guide





                            Very fine 

                            Fine Silk, Voile, Fine lace 



                            Cotton, Voile , Spandex , Lycra 


                            Medium weight

                            Quilting fabric, Cotton, Velvet, Muslin, knits, Sweatshirt 



                            Denim, Canvas, leather


                            Very Heavy

                            Heavy Denim, Heavy Canvas, Upholstery


                            Very High Heavy

                             Extra Heavy fabric 

                            Needle use by machine

                            Machine name

                            Code no.


                            Lock Stitch M/C 

                            DB x 1

                            65/9 , 70/10 , 75/11 , 80/12 

                            Over Lock M/C 

                            DC x 27 

                            65/9 , 70/10 , 75/11 , 80/12 

                            Flat Lock M/C 

                            Dc x 27

                            65/9 , 70/10 , 75/11 , 80/12 

                            Button Hole , Bartack / ZigZag 

                            UY 128 GAS UY 128 GBS 

                            65/9 , 70/10 , 75/11 

                            Button Stitch 

                            DP x 5

                            65/9 , 70/10 , 75/11 , 80/12


                            UY – 113 

                            65/9 , 70/10 , 75/11, 80/12 

                            Flat Seamer 

                            UY – 118 

                            65/9 , 70/10 , 75/11 

                            Types Of Stitch
                            • Class-100: Chain Stitch
                            • Class-200: Hand Stitch
                            • Class-300: Lock Stitch
                            • Class-400 Multi-Thread Stitch
                            • Class-500: Over Edge Chain Stitch
                            • Class-600: Covering Chain Stitch

                            Types of seam
                            • Class - I: Superimpose seam
                            • Class - II: Lapped seam
                            • Class - III: Bound Seam
                            • Class - IV: Flat Seam
                            • Class - V: Decorative Seam
                            • Class - VI: Edge Neatening Seam
                            • Class - VII: Edge Stitched Seam
                            • Class - VIII: Enclosed Seam

                            Thread cutting and Checking

                            • Open Seam
                            • Skip Stitch
                            • Uneven Top Stitch
                            • Broken Stitch
                            • Loose Stitch
                            • Puckering
                            • Pinching / Please
                            • Joint Stitch
                            • Roping
                            • Placket Up / Down
                            • Needle Mark Hole
                            • Wrong SPI
                            • Wrong Lable
                            • Twisted Part Seam
                            • Untrimmed Threads
                            • Shape Out
                            • Marking (Fabric Edge) 
                            KTF Laboratory 
                            • Relaxing rack
                            • Warp reel
                            • Electronic twist tester
                            • Truburst bursting strength
                            • Random tumble pilling tester
                            • Pilling photographic stands
                            • Pilling assessment viewer
                            • Martindale pilling tester
                            • Crock master
                            • ICI pilling box tester 
                            • Titan5 strength tester 
                            • Darkroom 

                            Temperature (21 ± 1 c) Relative humidity – (65 ± 2%)

                            Relaxing rack: In the Relaxing rack, the fabric is in the rest position. 

                            Electronic twist tester: A twist tester (computer) helps to determine the accurate twist of any given Specimen yarn. 

                            Random tumble pilling tester: Random Tumble Pilling Tester is a kind of pilling tester to determine textile fabric resistance to pilling, and fuzzing.

                            The random tumble pilling tester would tumble specimens randomly inside o the lined cylindrical test chamber by with the help of an impeller and compressed air. After a certain period, check the textile fabric samples pilling, and fuzzing.

                            Random Tumble Pilling Test Procedure

                            • prepare & condition the specimens as per the standard
                            • required time 30 min, using the ASTM method.
                            • place the specimens in the test chamber and close the door. Run the pilling machine for a certain period.
                            • evaluate the specimens visually with the help of the viewing cabinet.

                            Random Tumble Pilling Test Result

                            • The tested specimens would be placed on the viewing cabinet together with a reference sample for assessment. Then observe the grade of pilling, and fuzzing.
                            • Pilling assessment viewer Result: 5 no pilling, 4 - slight pilling, 3 moderate, 2 severe, 1 very severe

                            Crock master

                            James Heal's CrockMaster is a crock meter instrument used to determine

                            colour fastness to wet and dry rubbing.

                            loading weight – 9N rubbing time – 10

                            Crocking is simply the transfer of colour from the fabric onto another white test fabric. 

                            Crock Master
                            Crock Master 

                            Crocking determines the amount of colour transferred from the surface of coloured textile material to other surfaces by rubbing.

                            A test for fastness to rubbing can be performed on dry or wet fabric. The tester needs a small piece of fabric and a white test cloth. The test cloth is put on the grating and stag using stainless steel wire. The cloth swatches are rubbed together to see how much colour rubs off on the test cloth.

                            Martindale pilling tester: fabric-to-fabric rubbing

                            The amount of abrasion or pilling is compared against standard parameters. Standard: 125, 500,1000,2000. Martindale Abrasion & Pilling Tester determines the abrasion and pilling resistance of all kinds of textile structures. Samples are rubbed against known abrasives at low pressures and in continuously changing directions.

                            ICI pilling box tester:

                            ICI Pilling Box Tester is used to assess fabric surface pilling, snagging and fuzzing by tumbling randomly.

                            Mount the sample on polyurethane tubes and tumble randomly inside the box with cork lining.

                            Revolution: 1800 rpm ( as per buyer required) Time : 3-4 hours


                            • Daylight ( D-65)
                            • Cool white (CWF)
                            • TL 84 tube light ( 84 floral light grade)
                            • UV Ultraviolet ( only for white fabric)
                            • A Aina 

                            EXPOSING DEPARTMENT

                            Exposing screen print
                            Two types of methods are used for screen printing

                            Rotary (Niker), Inkjet

                            Screen coating:

                            The screen is to be coated in a light yellow light room. Excessive light dissipates the heat of the emulsion. To keep the temperature of the emulsion perfect, AC should be installed in the screen preparation room. There are generally three types of chemicals used in screen coating.

                            1. Universal emulsion 

                            2. Sensilax sensitizer 

                            3. Water

                            Screen coating sop :

                            Photo emulsion chemical 1 L 

                            Sensitizer 50 gm
                            Dis. Water
                            500 gm

                            200 gm of the prepared emulsion is added into a clean scraper ring and coated on the clean screen with a speed of 15 min. then dried at 68c. 

                            Screen expose:

                            After the screen coating, the screen has to be exposed.

                            1. Inkjet exposing machine 

                            2. Leaser exposing machine

                            Leaser exposing machine:

                            Film Process is not required. Leaser is used instead of a film. It also has to be exposed through computer operating.

                            It takes 15 minutes to expose the screen.
                            Temp – 25c fixed
                            The design will be hard and after washing the screen, the design area will be open. 
                            After exposing the screen, the screen has to be developed within 10/15 minutes. Then with the help of an automatic air system, you have to tighten the screen with air and tap on both sides of the screen to prev air from escaping.

                            The developed tank has two semicircular stands, above which, carefully soak the screen on it in water for 10/15 minutes. The screen should be removed from the developing tank and the outside and inside of the screen should be cleaned with water under high pressure through a shower. In this way, the design area is opened from the screen at water pressure. 

                            End ring glueing:

                            To remove the screen from polymerising, end ring glueing is done. And before doing the end ring glueing should be cleaned well.

                            After that, the end ring adhesive should be applied manually on both sides of the end ring (front side and back side) of the screen. After applying the adhesive, the adhesive should be dried for 10/15 minutes. 

                            DYEING DEPARTMENT

                            Dyeing Department

                            • When the Grey Fabric comes to the mill, the very first process will be started in the dyeing department.
                            • Three processes namely washing, bleaching & dyeing will be done simultaneously on grey fabric according to the customer’s requirement.
                            • For the above three processes, soft-flow machines are used for Knitted fabric.
                            • Different companies with varying capacities of soft-flow machines are present in the Komal mill.
                            • Some of which are automatic and others are manual.
                            • Most of these machines are from abroad like Italy, Turkey, etc while a few are from India.
                            • If the requirement of grey fabric is only for washing/bleaching then it takes 3-4 hours while the whole process of washing, bleaching and dyeing almost takes 10-12 hours.
                            • Before dyeing RFD is done to increase the colour-catching efficiency of fabric & to increase its whiteness.

                            Precautions to be made during dyeing :

                            • Caustic and Peroxide should never be mixed together in low water because it's very dangerous.
                            • Caustic should never be used in viscose grey fabric during RFD otherwise it will tear the fabric. 

                            Soft-Flow Dyeing Process

                            • Grey fabric was fed in the soft-flow machine by a reel on the top of the machine to the chamber.
                            • All the chemicals were fed into the machine by the mixing tank beside the machine.
                            • There was a pump attached to the soft flow machine to make the water circulate all over the machine to make the fabric moves smoothly.
                            • There is a mechanism called AERIAL SYSTEM in Komal which directly transfers the chemicals to chemical mixing tanks from storage by feeding the quantity data of chemicals required in pc.

                            Soft-Flow Dyeing Process 

                            • In soft-flow dyeing machine bleaching, scouring & dyeing are done.

                            • Washing & boiling is done on grey fabric at 98°C by adding different RFD

                              chemicals & hydrogen peroxide to remove dirt and make fabric soluble to

                              absorb dye on fabric. 

                            • After 40-45mins aerial & acetic acid is added to make the fabric neutral. 


                            Soft – Flow Dyeing Machine
                            Soft-flow dyeing machine

                            Printing department Printing process

                            The printing has described the application of different dyes on fabric to produce various designs. Printing is the production of all active designs with well-defined boundaries made by the artistic arrangement of one or more colours.

                            Printing is a procedure of decorating textile fabrics by applying dyes, pigments, or other materials ultimately forming patterns. Fabrics are often printed with attractive colours and various patterns by utilizing a variety of techniques as well as machine types. The textile printing process is the method carried out after dyeing and before finishing the textile manufacturing process. Among all the techniques the main methods of textile printing are block, screen, roller, and heat transfer printing. However, other methods, such as direct method, discharge, resist, and direct printing and others are also used commercially.

                            Method of the Printing process:

                            Block, roller, screen, heat transfer and ink-jet. but in Komal textile screen

                            printing ( chest printing) and rotary printing are used.


                            Types of print:

                            • Pigment print
                            • Reactive print
                            • Pigment discharge
                            • Disperse (rarely used)
                            • Colour: Red, orange, golden, blue, violate, t- blue, royal-B, black, yellow,
                            • green, magenta, pink etc.

                            Paste ingredients.

                            • Binder: hold colour
                            • Uria ( fertilizer) (thicker, harder)
                            • Fixer
                            Pigment paste:

                            • In pigment printing, binders are monomers which on heating get converted into polymer.
                            • No pressure
                            • No steaming
                            • Binder from plastic but, it’s too soft and transparent that it’s difficult to see it but we can feel its hardness on the fabric. That’s why pigment prints are harsher than other prints

                            Pigment discharge:

                            • Chemical: ST (colour cut) TEA ( fixer)

                            Chest printing: 

                            Types of chest printing

                            • HD 
                            • Khadi
                            • Pigment
                            • Puff (fusing letters print)
                            • Plastic
                            • Foil adhesive
                            • Glitter
                            • Simar (gold, silver)
                            • Discharge pigment
                            • CMYK (c cyan, M magenta, Y yellow, K black) Four colours close
                            • together to create the desired colour.

                            These machines will be available both in automatic machines and semi-automatic machines.

                            Chest Printing
                            Chest printing machine

                            Electric heat panels are included in the machine.

                            A total of five machines are used in Komal Textiles. 20,20,20,14,12 plate
                            18,18,18,12,10 head

                            DIGITAL FUSING M/C - 05

                            ELECTRIC CURING M/C

                            Electric curing m/c is used for fixing the printing paste onto the printed fabric.


                            • Two different colour screens used
                            • Colour spread not fixed properly
                            • Print is done onto the folder fabric
                            • Improper colour matching
                            • Improper colour matching
                            • Improper fusing ( different texture)

                            ROTARY PRINTING

                            • A typical rotary–screen printing machine is shown in fig.
                            • Most of the m/c follows the pattern established for fully automatic flat screen m/c. 

                            Cormac printing RD 8 machine

                            • Manufactured by - Stovec (Abad)
                            • Machine speed - maximum – 80 m/min
                            • normal speed - 30 m/min
                            • Fabric width - 72 inch
                            • Roller width - 640R,820R,914R mm
                            • No of heads - 6,8,12
                            • Drying chamber - 3
                            • Drying fan - 6
                            • Worker - Operator -2, Helper -3

                            Rotary printing
                            Rotary printing

                            Rotary Screen Printing

                            • A typical rotary-screen printing machine is shown in Figure 2.10. The design of
                            • Most machines follow the pattern established for fully automatic flat-screen machines: 
                            • An endless driven blanket, screen positions along the top, and blanket washing and drying are affected underneath during the return passage. Provision for the use of a thermoplastic adhesive is common on rotary machines, with a curved-surface heating plate to heat the fabric before it is pressed onto the blanket. 

                            Step-wise Printing Process

                            • The solid fabric is in roll form or in platted form
                            • The fabric is fed through a roller and with the help of a dumbbell roller
                            • fabric tension is maintained.
                            • Now with the help of a screw roller fabric selvedge remains opened.
                            • Then pressurized air is blown on the fabric which removes the dust particles.
                            • Then the fabric is passed on a magnetic blanket having gum on its surface.
                            • The pasting of the print is done with the help of a screen roller, the size or diameter of the screen roller depends on the print design. 

                            Screen Roller Radius





                            • - The print paste is pumped into the screen through a flexible pipe from a container at the side of the machine; inside the screen, the paste pipe has a rigid structure as it also acts as a support for the squeegee.

                            • - Holes in the pipe allow the paste to run down into the bottom of the screen; since the paste is pumped in from one end, the holes need to be larger at the end furthest from the pump to achieve an even spread across the full width of the screen. 

                            After printing the fabric is passed to the chamber where it is passed thrice in it.

                            • The fabric is passed from the blanket to a chamber with the help of a conveyor belt.
                            • Discharge Print: 90°C
                            • The temperature of the chamber varies according to the type of print. Pigment print: 150°C
                            • Reactive Print: 150°C
                            • The output of the fabric through the platter arm is continuously checked by the platter man. 



                            • In this, the fabric is subjected to pressure of 1.5 kg to 2 Kg steam for 7 to 15 min.
                            • With the help of this process Brightness of the print is increased


                            • In this process, the fabric is subjected to heat for 7 to 10 min
                            • Temp: 150°.
                            • Polymerisation increases colour fastness 













                            Finishing (dry/wet)






                            Inspection packing



                            Poly: improve colour fastness
                            Ager: improve colour brightness
                            Pigment: Poly
                            Temp 150c 160c 
                            Running 30 m/min 
                            Time 7 min 
                            Reactive: Ager 
                            Temp 107c
                            Steam 1 kg
                            Steam 1 kg
                            Running 30 m/min 
                            Time 7 min 


                            Different washing methods are used after the dying process.

                            The famous rope washing machine known for its washing power and compact design is available with a revised design that comprises;

                            • Better and more intuitive process control with a large touch panel interface,
                            •  Fully automatic fabric and load control,
                            •  Update chemical dosing with the recipe manager

                            Reactive washing:

                            • In the reactive print shop and acetic acid is used.
                            • Shop remove unfixed print
                            • Acetic acid PH maintain
                            • Temp: 70c - 80c 

                            Discharge washing:

                            • Shop: extra print remove
                            • Peroxide: improve colour whiteness
                            • Acetate acid: PH maintain 

                            Finishing Process

                            Finishing comprises the final process in the textile processing sequence to improve the hand feel or other aesthetic of the textiles or to add any extra functionality such as water repellency, anti-microbial or flame retardancy.

                            There are two types of finish

                            • Mechanical finish
                            • Chemical finish

                            MECHANICAL FINISH
                            It involves the application of physical principles such as friction, temperature, pressure, and tension. 
                            Heat set and compacting are types of Mechanical finish.

                            Heat Set
                            The heat-set is
                            a thermal process in which fabric is stabilized, and its parameters are set. This process is only used for synthetic fibre and also blended fibre.

                            Normally heat set is done for lycra fabric.

                            Parameters set in Heat set

                            1. Crease Resistance
                            2. Resilience
                            3. Elasticity
                            4. Strength
                            5.Shade(mostly heat-set is done before RFD process) 
                            6. GSM or Weight
                            7. Width
                            8. Wetting Capacity 
                            9. Softness 

                            Heat set process

                            • Heat-setting has to be done before any hot wet processing to avoid curling of the selvedge and discolouration during dyeing.
                            • The heat setting process involves subjecting the fabric to High temp but less than the melting point of the fibre. 

                            Finishing Processes

                            There are two types of finishing processes:
                            A. Wet on wet finish:-In this finishing the fabric fed is in wet form.

                            B. Dry on dry finish:-In this finishing the fabric fed is in dry form. Finishing process Step-wise
                            Main parts of a centre machine:

                            1. Feed zone: The fabric is fed in dry or wet form

                            • Centring device: It is taken and set at the centre of the roller

                            2. Chemical padding zone:

                            • Chemical tray: The fabric is then dipped into chemicals here
                            • Squeezing roller: It is squeezed with the help of a padder roller 

                            3. Bowing control zone: Skew is then given to the fabric

                            • Bowing roller (rubber roller, no of roller -2) 
                            • Sensor (no of sensor -6)
                            • Uncurling roller: Fed fabric remains open. 

                            Overfeed System in Finishing Machine & their parameters 
                            Overfeed System In Finishing Machine

                            Overfeed System In Finishing Machine 

                            4. Chain entry zone:

                            • Uncurling device (both sides of the chain entry)
                            • Sensor (both sides of the chain entry): They sense the selvedge and help the pin to grip the selvedge.
                            • Gripping of the selvedge is done through a pin.
                            • Brush roller (for attaching the fabric with the pin of the chain, no of brush roller -4
                            • Selvedge gumming device with gum box under the chain entry.
                            • PVA gum is used for selvedge gumming.

                            5. Drying zone:

                            • There are a total of 6 to 10 chambers are there, and each chamber has two fans
                            • Temperature is maintained with the help of oil heat.

                            6. Delivery zone: With the help of the Platter arm platting is done and the platter man constantly checks the fabric for any faults. 


                            • I learn coordination and mutual understanding between all departments in the organization to achieve goals.
                            • I Learn practices of continuous measuring and monitoring of product quality.
                            • I learn engineering field work, and practical knowledge plays a very vital role in developing skills.
                            • I learn to collect data through personal observation and discussion with employees.
                            • I learn garment merchandiser processes.
                            • Communicate with buyers, Garment Coasting, and Spec Tech. sheet observation, Sample development as per spec sheet measurement( PP Sample, GPT Sample, PP Counter Sample), lab dip approval, Strick-off Approval, Fabric Booking, Trims Booking, check In- house material, Fabric And Garment Testing, PP Sample approval, communication with the buyer on mail, Order dispatch within the time limit, Invoice making, ERP Entry, shipment sample send to the buyer. 

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