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Garment Internship report - Komal, Ahmedabad

Garment Internship report

Table of content

1. Company Profile
2. Cutting Department
3. Fabric Store
4. Testing Lab
5. Trims store
6. Stitching Department
7. Quality Department
8. Sample Department
9. Packaging
10. Merchandizing
11. Project


COMPANY PROFILE

Company name - KOMAL WORLDWIDE PVT LTD

Address - Komal worldwide Pvt. ltd., Narolgam, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 38240

Website - http://komaltexfab.com/about.php

Market - Domestic and export

Owner - Mr Rajesh Bagrecha


CUTTING DEPARTMENT

SAMPLING

↓ 

DIGITALIZING

↓ 

GRADING

NESTED

↓ 

APPROVED

FABRIC RECEIVING 

↓ 

PLOTTER

↓ 

CUTTING

SPREADING

↓ 

BUNDLING 

STICKING

TYPES OF MACHINES USED IN THE CUTTING DEPARTMENT:

  1. Spreading Machine

  2. Hand Cutter (straight knife)

  3. Ply Cutter (round knife)

  4. Band Knife Cutter

  5. Powerful Cloth Drill 


CAD DEPARTMENT

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) has become an essential tool for pattern-making and related jobs in the garment industry. In the apparel industry CAD Software is used for pattern making, Grading of patterns, marker making and digitizing manual designs.

CAD system involves any type of design activities used to develop analyses or modify any engineering or garment design.

ELECTRACAD Software which is used for computer-aided design in KOMAL WORLDWIDE.

CAD work for fabric

GRADING

Build block libraries with "master grading." Changes made to the base pattern are automatically reflected in the entire size range eliminating the need to recalculate grade rules. Easily insert size in between current sizes and the system will automatically divide the grading in half. 



MARKER MAKING

A marker is a diagram of the precise arrangement of pattern pieces for the size of a specific style that is to be cut from a single spread.

Marker making is a process of developing a diagram which is superimposed on the top of a ground of superimposed piles as a guide for cutting these plies.

It determines the most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a specific style fabric and distribution sizes. 


FUSING MACHINE:

Process flowchart of fusing machine:

Part of the garment to be fused is spread on the table. 

The resinated interlining surface is placed and applied at the required temperature and pressure 

The resin coating of interlining is melted by heat into the fabric under pressure 

It is cooled and the fabric becomes hard and then interlining is attached

  • The temperature range – is 127-171 degrees Celcius

  • Time range – 5-20 Seconds

  • Heater power – 4000 Watt

  • Thermostrips are used to measure the temperature.

  • The strength of the fusing on fabric is measured by a particular Strength Testing Machine.

  • 2 types of interlinings are used for fusing:

  • Microdot Interlining

  • Tricot Interlining 



SPREADING:

Types of spreading Tables:

  1. Pin Table

  2. Air Flotation Table(Used in KWW)

  • Before spreading the fabric it is necessary to relax the fabric for a minimum of 6 hours.

  • Spreading of the fabric is done on the bases of the Shade number of the Fabric.

  • Two shades are separated in layering by inserting a dummy fabric in between.

  • The height of the layer of the fabric is considered as 3.5 inches ideally in KWW.

  • In KWW there are two types of spreading techniques SemiAutomatic And Manual

    Stickering:
    00
    (cut number)-000(size number)-0000(Piece number)

  • Colour-wise size stickering chart for cut fabric

Colour 

Size

Red

XS/26 

Yellow

S/28

Pink 

M/30

Green

L/32

Orange

XL/34 

Purple

XXL/36

Blue

XXL/38 

  • After completing the garment the product checker checks the sticker to confirm that the garment is stitched following the numbering sticker.

  • After the garment is checked by-product checker leaves one sticker in the garment and removes the rest of the stickers.

  • The sticker that will be left in the garment goes to packing and following SAM we should pack in such a way that one cartoon should have the garment in one shade.

  • The last should be removed just before inserting the garment into the polybag. 


FABRIC STORE

MARKETING 

ORDER(PIECE) 

CONSUMPTION(AUTOCAD AND MARKETTING) 

LAB DIP/STRIKE OFF 

BUYER APPROVE 

BULK CARD 

YARN BOOK AND FABRIC BOOK 

KNITTING AND PROCESSING 

TESTING 

INSPECTION(100%) 

FABRIC STORE 

INSPECTION (20%) 

↓ 

TESTING


FABRIC INSPECTION

The fabric being the main contribution to the development of our final product i.e. the garment, it is very important to control its quality indicated by the no. of faults and various presentations in it. Identification of these objectionable variations and faults right at the initial stage to reduce the production time. So once the fabric is in-house it is immediately sent on a pilot and trolley assembly for inspection.

4-POINT SYSTEM:
4 Point system for fabric inspection is widely used in the apparel industry for fabric

quality inspection.

  1. Fabric inspection method or preparation.

  2. Criteria for giving penalty points based on defects and defect length.

  3. Calculation method of total penalty points for total defects found in a fabric roll.

  4. A Check sheet or format for recording data.

  5. Knowledge of different types of defects (how a defect looks and its appearance).

Criteria for giving penalty points

The penalty evaluation points have been given for the different lengths of fabric defects and dimensions of holes.

SIZE OF DEFECT

PENALTY POINTS

Length of defects in fabric (either length or width)


Defects up to 3 inches 

1

Defects > 3 inches < 6 inches

2

Defects > 6 inches < 9 inches

3

Defects > 9 inches < 24 inches

4



ABOVE 24 INCHES

REJECT

Holes and openings(largest dimension)

4


  • If from the above method of pointing the defects like miss prints, stains, shade variation, knitting defects, and weaving defects if the total points are more than 28 points then the fabric roll is sent for further inspection to the QC department.

  • The QC department checks the roll further and decides to approve or reject it according to the defect.

  • While booking the fabric the extra additional fabric and yarn are as follows; Rayon-12%, Lycra-2%, Knitting-1.5%, Solid-8%, Printed-10%.


TESTING LAB 

This is a physical lab.

Total number of testing;

  1. Shrinkage
  2. Spiyrality
  3. Colour fastness
    -cf by washing
    -cf tp water
    -cf by perspiration -cf by rubbing
    {wet rubbing} {dry rubbing}
  4. Pilling
    -Martindale pilling box -ICI pilling box -random tumble pilling
  5. Bursting strength
  6. Tear strength
  7. ph
  8. Attachment strength
  9. Print durability
  10. Shade matching 
  11. GSM
  12. Stretchability 
  13. Fibre Content


TRIMS STORE

List of trims:

  1. Buttons
  2. Drawcord
  3. Hangar
  4. Sticker
  5. Elastic
  6. Polybag
  7. Snap eyelet
  8. Zipper
  9. Zipper puller
  10. Cartoons
  11. Price Stickers
  12. Barcode

  • Trims store as the name suggests is a department, which acts as a storehouse for accessories. It is the place where all the accessories required in an export house, are stored. Right from sewing thread, and needles to packaging material like poly bags and taps etc. all are stored in the accessories store.

  • The merchandiser as per buyer specifications orders the purchase dept. to buy the accessories that are used in a particular style of that buyer. Merchandiser prepares a swatch card containing all the accessories and their quantity in a cycle. These accessories used in the swatch card are as per the quality and colour mentioned and approved by the buyer. The purchase dept. with help of a swatch card prepared by the merchandiser purchase the required quantity of accessories. The accessories are purchased 10 – 15% extra than the required, as the wastage in the case of accessories is more. The receiving dept. then receives these accessories from the vendor and then checking and testing of these accessories are done. They are checked for quality and colour. The accessories like buttons are tested with help of a button snap tester. After all, the accessories are checked and tested as per the buyer’s specifications then an accessories card is prepared. 

  • After the accessories are received they are stored in the accessory store. The accessories are stored in different racks. The accessories of a single buyer are stored in one rack but the different accessories are stored separately from each other in the same rack. The accessories store also houses the stationary required in an export house.

  • Now, whenever the production starts the accessories required in production are issued to the production dept. through an internal channel. A stock register is used for maintaining records. Thus an accessory store functions as a storehouse for accessories where all accessories are assembled and kept and also issued to the sampling and production dept. for the garment manufacturer. 

 

STITCHING 

Types of Machines used:

  1. Overlock Stitching Machine

  2. Flatlock Stitching Machine

    -Flatlock Binding -Flatlock Hemming -Flatlock Cover Seam -Flat Seamer

  3. Single Needle Stitching Machine

  4. Button Machine

  5. Bartack Machine

  6. Heat sealed Machine

  7. Snap Eyelet Machine

The production floor follows the assembly line system. The following are steps to start a production line.

  • To study the production file.
  • To study operation bulletin and set line accordingly. 
  • Manpower – operators, checkers, quality controllers and helpers. 
  • Load and feeding line.
  • To arrange buffer or work–in–progress.
  • Manufacturing.
  • To make daily production and to achieve targets accordingly. 
  • To understand the bottlenecks stage of production. 

Some important terms that are very important in the production line:

-SAM(standard allowed minute) -Time study
-Skill matrix
-Time matrix

Some equations that are used in the production line:

SAM(standard allowed minute) 
-Time study
-Skill matrix
-Time matrix 

Some equations that are used in the production line: 

Efficiency = SAM * target pieces / No. of machine * total working time

ALLOWANCE = persnal + fatigue + machine delay + bundle handling


For machine delay allowance:

Single needle - 12.5% 
Overlock needle - 15% 
Press – 5%
Standing – 5% 


IMPORTANT TERMS

MOF = material of forms
GOPF = garment order processing form TNA = time and absent
GSM = grams per square meter
DHU = defective per hundred units PPM = pre-production meeting
PPS = pre-production sample
FPT = fabric processing test
GPT = garment processing test
SOP = system of procedure
GRN = god receipt note
PO = purchase order
SAM = standard allowance minute SPI = stitch per inch
ASN = advanced shipping note AOP = all-over print
AQL = accepted quality level 
PI = purchase invoice
SO = sales order


QUALITY CHECKING

QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
Quality Inspection of Internal Processes and Outsourced work

Inspection of raw material: Checking of raw materials to ensure there are no defective or abnormal goods.

Testing of raw material: The quality control department does not conduct testing of raw materials but they send samples to the testing lab for testing physical and chemical tests. Once the factory receives the test report, the quality control team get assurance whether the raw material is to accept or not.

Inspection of Sample: Visual inspection and measurement checking is done before sending the sample to respective buyers.

Cutting room inspection: The quality department also inspects work done by the cutting room. Like, as the layering of fabrics on a cutting table, cut layer inspection, cut component inspection, Bundle inspection etc.

Preparatory work inspection: In fashion garments, a lot of preparatory work is outsourced like printing, machine embroidery, special decoration on garments etc. Before feeding these outsourced goods, the quality department checks and approves for further process (sewing process).

Sewing process: In sewing, there are multiple checking processes practised by exporters, like, Inline inspection, end-of-line inspection, stitching quality audit etc.

Finishing Process: Finally quality personnel checks finished and packed goods and do auditing before handover shipment to the external inspector.

Quality System Development: To make quality products throughout the garment manufacturing process, factories need to develop a quality system. Quality Control Department is responsible for setting up a quality system for the factory.


SAMPLE DPARTRMENT

A sample is a prototype of a product to be manufactured in the future course of production. It is also called a mock-up of a product and is made to check the design effectiveness and fit of the garment. Sampling is a set of procedures followed to produce various sample styles. It contains activities like making the pattern for the prototype according to the measurement of the sample with the help of machinery and getting buyers' approvals for sample production.

In an export house, the sampling department plays a vital role in the uplifting of a unit. This department directly coordinates with the merchandising dept. and production dept. sampling is done to see how the product will look when produce in bulk and to check discrepancies in the pattern.


TYPES OF SAMPLING

  • PROTOTYPE SAMPLE MADE
  • FIT SAMPLE MADE
  • PP SAMPLE MADE
  • SIZE SET MADE
  • SHIPMENT SAMPLE MADE 

PACKAGING DEPARTMENT

Packing is the LAST STAGE WHERE THE FINISHED GARMENT ARE PRIMED, Organized, and geared up for shipment to the buyer, the entire process from the way a garment will be folded to the final labelling of the cartons is dictated by the buyer’s specifications. These instructions are standardized for a particular type of garment and sent to the merchandiser in form of a packing manual. The merchandiser forwards it to the packer in charge along with a top-of-production sample i.e. packed with dimensions approved by the buyer. This is kept as a visual reference for the packers.

THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF PACKAGING SYSTEMS:

1. PRE-PACK 
2. EACHACE 
3. ECOM 


MERCHANDISING DEPARTMENT

The following are the responsibilities of the merchandiser:

1. Internal& external communication, 
2. Sampling,
3. Lab dips,
4. Accessories& trims,
5. Preparing internal order sheets,
6. Preparing purchase orders,
7. Advising and assisting production,
8. Advising the quality department about quality level,
9. Mediating production and quality departments,
10. Giving shipping instructions and following shipping,
11. Helping the documentation department,
12. Taking responsibility for inspections and Following shipment


Project Overview

PROJECT TITLE:

Low production efficiency of a few lines

NEED OF PROJECT:

The line production efficiency is not up to the mark in various lines so to increase the efficiency we worked on this project.

DETAILS:

. This project is based on the less production efficiency seen on a few lines. in this project, we did the data analysis of the production of different lines i.e. lines no. 2 to 8. (except 3)

• We checked the production of different styles running on the floor for 3 months.

• From the production we prepared a sheet that includes input quantity and output quantity and also the in and out dates. after that, we took the same (standard allowance minute) for each style and calculated the target production of different styles.

• And we compared the target production with the actual production and found out that there is an efficiency loss in the production.


CONCLUSION:

. This loss of efficiency could be covered up by feeding the same type of styles along the same lines.

• This loss of efficiency is seen due to the small quantity orders in different lines; so to overcome this we need to allocate 1 or 2 lines for such type of small quantity orders to save the efficiency loss in other lines.

Supply of the correct material and the correct quantity of Feeding in the line to save time.

A ppm meeting must be arranged with the QC in charge, ie manager, production manager and line in charge. 


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