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Fabric dyeing machine - Jet

Fabric dyeing machine 

There are certain types of machines that are used for the fabric dyeing process.

1. Jigger dyeing machine
2. High-temperature jigger dyeing machine
3. HT vacuum jigger dyeing machine
4. Winch dyeing machine
5. High-temperature beam dyeing machine
6. Pad dyeing machine
7. Jet dyeing machine
8. Soft overflow jet dyeing machine   

Jet Dyeing Machine

Up until recently, machines that either conveyed the material or the dye fluid were the foremost widely used equipment for dying fabric. 

The textile material is virtually static within the latter case whereas the dye liquid is within the former.

The "jet dyeing machine" was created in response to the necessity for dyeing techniques that were speedier and simpler. 

The very fact that a jet dyeing machine causes both the material and therefore the dye to manoeuvre makes it special. 

The material and dye liquor should inherit intimate contact with each other the maximum amount and as quickly as possible. this is often one of the basic principles of successful dying. 

This bedrock is met admirably within the jet dyeing machine, So the basics of a jet dyeing machine involve the movement of both the liquor additionally because of the fabric. 

The alcohol's velocity increases substantially as a result of being driven through a little jet, sometimes referred to as a "venturi." 

When the cloth is additionally in its path, the material is pulled along and quickly transported through the jet. 

Jet dyeing equipment uses low liquor ratios, which helps save cash throughout the dyeing process.

The principal components of the machine are the main dyeing tank, which holds the material and therefore the dye fluid, a jet, a device, a circulation pump, and a cloth reel. 

A cloth guide tube leads a stream of dye liquor down into a large cloth storage chamber with continual strands of fabric. 

At now, it takes on a uniformly folded conformation and proceeds slowly through the dye bath to a grip underneath a lifter reel, where it's presented to the recirculating dye liquor airstream at the intake of the material guide tube. 

A typical jet dyeing machine is depicted in the figure below in the section.

The fabric is loaded by entering the top of the strand into the jet intake, where the airstream picks it up and carries it to the front of the material chamber so it's going to be sewn end-to-end. 

Thus the material is within the variety of an endless loop, even as it's during a winch machine. 

The chief differences are that within the jet machine the liquor will be moving, the M: L ratio is additionally comparatively much lower and also the much higher dyeing temperatures are possible. 

Jet Dyeing Machine

Jet Dyeing Machine
Jet Dyeing Machine 

The pump circulates the dye liquor through a device, which heats or cools the liquor as necessary without dilution. 

An element of the liquor is then pumped Through the jet to impregnate and transport the products being processed. 

The remainder of the liquor flows through a bye-pass into the beck, where it agitates the most body of the dye liquor. the quantity of jets determines the dimensions of the machine and therefore the jet used depends upon the sort of cloth under process. 

Currently, jet dyeing machines, which might accommodate up to 6 ropes of cloth, i.e. having six jets, are available. 

The capacity of the machine is about 100-125 kg per jet and also the maximum temperature attainable is 140°C. 

The material after processing is unloaded by breaking the seam and bringing the free end over the unloading reel. 

Loading and unloading of various tubes may be disbursed simultaneously. 

Any quiet fabric that has the dimensional stability to face up to the forces of the circulating liquor through the jet will be dyed on this type of machine.

Soft overflow jet Dyeing Machine: 

Despite its clear benefits, the standard jet dyeing machine has the downside of being unable to colour fabrics with poor dimensional stability because doing so would cause the fabric to deform and lose its original shape. 

As a result, further advancements in machine technology led to the creation of the "soft overflow jet dyeing machine," which has all the advantages of a jet dyeing machine and is well matched for dying light-weight textiles without running the chance of material distortion. Difference between jet Dyeing and soft overflow jet dyeing principles: 

Jet Dyeing Machine

(i) The standard jet dyeing machine is very useful for dyeing fairly strong woven fabric as it can withstand the tensions that transport it through the dye liquor without showing any dyeing faults, creases or fabric distortion. In this case, the 'jet' is so devised that the liquor pushes the fabric through it with great force. So both the fabric and the dye liquor move 

(ii) Standard jet is one through which all of the liquor has to pass. Also, Since it has a constricted or tapered shape, the liquor passing through it would do So with high velocity and would therefore transport fabric with much greater force. This kind of jet is therefore suitable only for regular fabric with high dimensional stability.

Overflow Jet Dyeing Machine

(i) The soft overflow type of machine uses a 'jer' system in which the dye liquor is allowed to overflow while gently pushing the fabric with much less force and at a much lower speed. This kind of gentle treatment is required for the knitted fabric of fine Construction that might prove dimensionally unstable in the conventional jet dyeing machine. 

(ii) In the soft overflow type of jet, only a part of the dye liquor passes through the jet, so its velocity through the jet will be low. Even if the fabric it transports has low dimensional stability, it will get gentle treatment at the jet and no distortion would occur. 

(iii) soft overflow jet dyeing machine is thus suitable for dyeing a wide range of knitted and woven constructions of fabric in rope and open-width form up to 98°C. Both heavy and light fabrics can be processed easily without any fabric distortion by means of suitable nozzles, a typical size being a nozzle of 168 mm diameter. The fabric is processed very gently without tension and slippage. Synthetic fibre fabric shows little pilling in this machine.

Questions -
  1. Which types of machines are useful for the fabric dyeing process?
  2. Explain the jet dyeing machine in detail.
  3. Explain the jet overflow dyeing machine for fabric.


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Writer - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college ichalkaranji)
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