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Basic dyes receipe, fastness and stripping action

Dyeing Recipe assistants

The diagram shows how the reaction between the dye and also fibre ends up in the formation of acid as a byproduct. 

As a result, the uptake of dye by the fibre could be delayed if acid (or the other equivalent) is added to the dye bath. 

The utilization of a Retarding agent would be one step that helps with level dyeing since basic dyes typically have an inclination to rush into the fibre. 

Additionally, the ionisation of the protein fibres' carboxyl groups is delayed within the presence of an acid, like acid, within the dye bath. I e the fibre material contains fewer anionic, or negative, sites. Consequently, the dye uptake or exhaustion of the dye bath also declines. 

Dyeing process with a basic dye
Dyeing process with a basic dye

Basic dyes have such a robust affinity for silk and wool that the inclusion of a Retarding agent is often desired; ethanoic acid at an amount of 1 to 2 percent by weight of the products is most often utilised for this purpose. 

The additional hydrogen ions within the liquid work to block the speed at which the dye ions bind to the fibre and dissuade electronegative locations from drawing people to them. 

Towards the tip of the dyeing process, when acid has been employed, a tiny low amount of alkali could also be added to finish the Exhaustion. 

Soap can replace carboxylic acid as an assistance since basic dyes are absorbed in a very neutral or alkaline bath. It takes 10 to fifteen percent of the material or product weight. H2O must be used while dying with soap.

Fastness properties of Basic dyes on acrylic fibres : 

(1) because of the extremely stable dye-fibre bond, basic dyes on acrylic fibres have excellent wash fastness. 

(2) The standard basic dyes have slightly better light fastness on acrylic fibres than on natural fibres. it's been hypothesised that the acrylic polymer is so hydrophobic that oxygen and moisture, which are known to contribute to fading, cannot undergo it.

(3) Recently developed cationic dyes have greatly improved light fastness. thanks to the success of the creation of the latest dyes, dyed acrylic fibres are now considered to have the simplest combination of lightfastness, brightness, and wash fastness of any dyed textile fibre and have set the bar for the remainder of the industry. 

The fastness of dye on the fabric
The fastness of the dye on the fabric

Stripping of basic (Cationic dyes) dyes : 

By soaking the coloured material during a boiling solution of detergent (0.5 to 1 gpl) and ethanoic acid at pH 4 for 1 to 2 hours, basic dyes from acrylic fibre are partially removed. Reducing agents should not be used since they are either dull or flatten the colour, which results in little stripping and lots of dulling.

It is advised to treat the world for 30 to an hour at boil using sodium chlorite (0.5 gpl) and acid (1 gpl) at pH 4. 

Due to serious damage to the wool, this treatment shouldn't be used on mixtures of acrylic wool. it's been patented to use the subsequent procedure to get rid of fundamental dyes from acrylic fibres.

The faulty dyeing is treated for 1 hour at a boil in a bath containing 

They are then rinsed and Bleached for 30 minutes in a bath containing - 


(1) Monoethanolamine 

(2) Sodium chloride

5 ml/ l 

5 gpl

They are then rinsed and Bleached for 30 minutes in a bath containing - 

Recipe :

(1) Sodium Hypochlorite 

(2) Sodium nitrate
(3) Acetic acid

5 ml/l
5 gpl
ph= 4 to 4.5

Finally, the goods are treated with sodium bisulphite (3 gpl) at 60°C for 15 minutes and washed. 

Questions -
What is a dyeing recipe assistant?
What are the fastness properties of the basic dyes on acrylic fibres?
What is the stripping action of basic dyes?


About Basic Dyes. (n.d.). from

Basic Dyes. (n.d.). from

Basic dyes in textile. (2021, January 21). Leartex; Leartex Magazine.

Hasin, S. (2021, February 4). Clear your doubts with Basic dye!! Textile Property.

Patwary, E. M. Z. (2012, May 3). What is basic dyes. Textile Fashion Study; Engr. Mohammad Zillane Patwary.

textileblog. (2021, September 8). What is Basic or Cationic Dye. Textile Blog.

(N.d.). from

Writer - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college ichalkaranji)
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