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Application of basic dyes on silk

Application of basic dye on various fibres

Chemical structure of the Basic dye
Chemical structure of the Basic dye

Explanation -

(A) Application of basic dyes on Silk :

(a) Dissolution of basic dyes 
(b) Dyeing
(c) Soaping & acidification 
(d) After-treatment 

Explanation - 

(a) Dissolution of basic dyes : 

Water does not dissolve basic colours. The best method for dissolving them is to combine the dye powder with water and acetic acid (40 percent), then stir while adding boiling water to the paste - 


Solution - 

(1)  Dye powder
(2)  Water (boiling)
(3)  Acetic acid (40%)


Alkali and soap, in addition to silk gum, are two of the main ingredients in broken degumming liquid, which is frequently used to dye silk.
The dye bath is prepared as follows - 


(1)Soft water - 4 litre 
(2) Acetic acid - 40% 
(3)Soap. - 2-3 gpl 

One litre of degumming liquor from silk that has been boiled out is added to a dye bath and diluted with soft water to make four litres. Then, a quantity of acetic acid is added to liquefy soap's fatty acids and neutralises the alkali. 

(b) Dyeing : 

Silk material is dipped into the bathtub that has been made within the manner described above and then wetted out. 

The fabric is then far away from the bathtub and mixed thoroughly with the filtered dye solution to make a homogeneously coloured solution.

The silk went back to the bathtub and worked there for the subsequent 20 minutes. 

After that, the temperature is gradually increased to 85°C, where the fabric is processed within the dye bath for half-hour. 

If auramine is the dye getting used, the dye bath temperature should not be permitted to travel above 75°C. 

Dyeing the products are rinsed, hydro extracted & dried. If a brighter finish for the coloured material is required, a final immersion in an exceeding suspension of twenty-two ethanoic acid or olive soap on the burden of silk is given. 

With no additional washing, the fabric is hydro extracted & dried to provide scooped silk.

(c) Soaping & acidification : 

(Soaping) Recipe 
(1) Oliveoil=10to15% 
(2) Soft water = remaining(as per MLR ) 
(3)  Basic dye = X
(4)  Temperature = 80°C
(5)  Time = 1 hour
Soft water is required first. the quantity of olive soap added to the tub is between 10% and 15%. 
The silk is introduced at 60 degrees Celsius and worked within the alcohol until it's completely wetted out. 
After that, it's far from the tub and a few dye solution is added. 
The remaining dye solution is added in little amounts over the course of an hour because the temperature is raised to 80°C, with the fabric being far away from the dye bath before each addition. 

Acidification - Recipe - 


(1)  Acetic acid = 1 gpl
(2)  Temperature = 85 °C

Since carboxylic acid acts as a Retarding agent, the majority of basic colours will be utilised with this approach. One gallon of 

carboxylic acid is added to the tub. The temperature is progressively increased to 85°C while the products are still cold. During the dyeing process, the dye solution is introduced bit by bit. For this procedure to spice up the brightness, no post-treatment is required. 

(d) After treatment :

One test is available called the tannin reagent test :

(1) Add 1 gm of dye to 5 ml distilled water then add 2 ml tannin reagent
(2) If the PPT is with tannin acid then the tannin Acid test is positive which means the dye is a basic dye.

After being treated with phenol to make the dye relatively insoluble phenol salt and basic dyes can have their wet fastness increased.

The action of an antimony salt, which creates a dye tannin antimony complex that's even more insoluble, improves the fastness further. 

The foremost convenient antimony compound used is tartrate which could be a popular name for potassium antimony tartarate, 2[K(SbO).C4H4O6].H2O 

This treatment improves bath light further as wash fastness.

Questions -

  1. Describe the application of basic dyes on various fibres.
  2. Explain the application of basic dyes on silk fibre.
  3. What is the dissolution of basic dyes?
  4. What is the dyeing, soaping and acidification process for basic dyes?


About Basic Dyes. (n.d.). from

Basic Dyes. (n.d.). from

Basic dyes in textile. (2021, January 21). Leartex; Leartex Magazine.

Hasin, S. (2021, February 4). Clear your doubts with Basic dye!! Textile Property.

Patwary, E. M. Z. (2012, May 3). What is basic dyes. Textile Fashion Study; Engr. Mohammad Zillane Patwary.

textileblog. (2021, September 8). What is Basic or Cationic Dye. Textile Blog.

(N.d.). from

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Writer - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college ichalkaranji)
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