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Reactive dyeing method - High exhaust brand dye

Methods of Dyeing cotton with Various Reactive dye brands: 

Application on cotton fabric by various dyes- 

Among these five, below is the explanation of the third method.

Explanations -

(3) High Exhaust brand reactive dyes:

The main features of HE brand dyes are -

(i) Exceptionally high build-up (dye absorption).
(ii) Wide variation in material to Liquor ratio doesn't affect the Exhaustion and fixation efficiency.
(iii) Due to the high fixation of the dye, subsequent washing and Soaping treatment is way easier and hence economical.

Application -
The application of HE brand reactive dyes to cotton material involves the identical steps as those given for H brand dyes.
Dyeing procedure -
(i) Preparation of products for dyeing -
This is identical as stated previously for M brand dyes. 

(ii) Preparation of dye solution Paste the dye powder with cold water and dissolved the dye by adding water at 80°C.
(iii) Dyeing cycle (HE brand dyes) -
The figure given below of the dyeing cycle for HE reactive dyes.

Dyeing cycle for reactive HE brand dyes
Dyeing cycle for reactive HE brand dyes

(1) Set the dye bath at 25°C with carboxylic acid 
(2) make sure that its pH is simply below 7
(3) Adjust pH with ethanoic acid if necessary 
(4) Enter the fabric and run it in the bath for five minutes 
(5) Add pre-dissolved dyes and continue dyeing for 10 minutes
(6) Add the salt in three portions (10%,30% and 60%) during the amount of raising the temperature to 80°C in a half-hour a 
(7) Dye for 20 minutes at 80°C after the last salt addiction 
(8) Add the alkali; if sodium carbonate alone is employed, it should be added over 10 minutes. If a mixture of salt and sodium hydroxide is employed the premixture should be added over a quarter-hour 
(9) Dye for an extra 30 to an hour at 80°C depending upon the depth of shade
(10) Drop the bathtub and withdraw 

(iv) Washing off and Soaping -
For maximum fastness, wash off efficiently after dyeing. The wash-off cycle is given below- 



10 minutes

Hot wash (70°C)

10 minutes

Hot wash(70°C)

15 to 30 minutes

Soap at the boil for heavy shades for two 15 minutes soaps are preferred

10 minutes

Hot wash (70°C) wash cold until the wash liquor is clear. Drop the bath and squeeze and dry the dried Material


The SERF profile of HE dyes - 

The SERF Profile is a vital criterion within the selection of reactive dyes for combination shades. The SERF profile for the HE brand reactive dye is given below- 

(A) Substantivity (S) : 

This is often defined because of the percentage uptake of dye within the absence of Alkali but, in the presence of the recommended quantity of salt. For exhaust dyeing, dyes having high Substantivity within the range of 60 to 80% should be chosen so that most of the dye uptake occurs before fixation begins, thus with dye migration and Diffusion.

(B) Exhaustion (E):
This is defined because of the percentage uptake of dye by the fibre at the tip of the fixation stage. 

In any reactive dyeing system, if the secondary exhaustion is simply too high, level dyeing problems could result. A small difference within the Exhaustion will ensure level dyeing. The E value shouldn't exceed the S value by quite 30%.

(C) Rate of fixation( R) : 

This is the portion of the final fixation that takes place in the first five minutes following the addition of the alkali. 

Unless the dye has rapid diffusion of excellent migration capabilities, the R-value shouldn't be more than 60% of the final fixation. Rapid fixation before full exhaustion will result in poor diffusion. 

(D) Fixation Percentage (F): 

This is defined because of the percentage Fixation of the dye at the top of the fixation process. 

The difference between the values of exhaustion and fixation should be minimum and washing off is simpler.

Questions -

  1. Which methods are used for the reactive dyeing process?
  2. Describe the High Exhaust brand for reactive dyes.
  3. What is the dyeing process for High Exhaust brand reactive dyes?
  4. Which sequence does the High Exhaust brand Reactive dyeing process follow?


Ahmed, S. (2014, September 29). Reactive dyes - classification. TextileTuts.

Chakraborty, J. N. (2010). Waste-water problem in textile industry. In Fundamentals and Practices in Colouration of Textiles (pp. 381–408). Elsevier.

Clark, M. (2011). Handbook of textile and industrial dyeing: Principles, processes and types of dyes (Matthew Clark, Ed.). Woodhead Publishing.

No title. (n.d.). from

Patwary, E. M. Z. (2012, February 18). Reactive dyes. Textile Fashion Study; Engr. Mohammad Zillane Patwary.

Sayed, A. (n.d.). Why reactive dye is so called? from

What are Reactive Dyes? Types of Reactive Dyes. (n.d.). from

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 - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college Ichalkaranji)
Email Id -

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