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Development of reactive dyes

Development of reactive dyes

(1) Flurotriazine reactive dyes
(2) Low salt (LS) reactive dyes
(3) New Polyfunctional reactive dye
(4) Fluorescent reactive dyes
(5) Mixed functional dyes

Reactive dyes fabric
Reactive dyes fabric


(1) Development of flurotriazine dyes - 


A novel aliphatic vinyl sulphone system and a monofloral triazine bridging group were developed for a mixed functional dye that was intended for pad application.
In figure (c), the Cibacron C dye, this dye is depicted diagrammatically. 

These dyes have high build-up and medium to low affinity. Easy to get rid of, very fixative, and effective buildup Easy to get rid of, very fixative, and exhibiting strong dye-to-fibre bonds and good acid and alkali resistance.

The Cibacron FN dye includes a structure almost like the above and has been developed for warm exhaust application to Cellulose and blends and also for pad batch applications.

Cibacron C dye
Cibacron C dye 
(i) These dyes show excellent washing off and have good wash light fastness
(ii) They show high fixation.
(iii) The dyed fibre bond is very immune to oxidants (detergent) under acid and alkaline conditions.
(iv) The chromophore is very sulphonated.

(2) Development of low salt (LS) dyes : 

In 1990 Cibacron LS has launched as low salt dyes and these are based on bis MFT(mono fluoro triazine) that's analogous to the bis MCT(mono-chloro triazine).

These dyes require but 1 / 4 of the salt required for normal dyeing and this enables for efficient operation of wastewater treatment plants.

Cibacron LS dye
Cibacron LS dye


(3) New Polyfunctional reactive dye:

Hetero Bifunctional reactive dyes are modified by introducing a brand new Polyfunctinal reactive dye supported by the disulphide bis(ethylsulphone or monochlorotriazine) reactive system.

(4) Fluorescent reactive dyes -

Nowadays fluorescent reactive dyes prepared from 6 acetyl-2-naphthol are available within the market.

(5) Mixed functional dyes -

These dyes have superior fastness to acid storage and better fastness to Peroxide wash but are weak to alkali treatment. 

A fixation of 1 system is supplemented by fixation through a second system, achieving a fixation level of above 80%. 

Fixation level of mixed functional dye
Fixation level of mixed functional dye 

According to the mentioned statistic, bifunctional reactive dyes have a higher attachment rate than monofunctional reactive dyes, making them more cost-effective.
The number of potential reactions is bigger for bifunctional dyes than for monofunctional dyes. The graphic below illustrates the 8 compounds that bifunctional dyes can create.
 Where R1 and R2 are the two reactive groups in the Bifunctional dye.

reaction possibilities of Bifunctional reactive dyes
Reaction possibilities of Bifunctional reactive dyes

Questions -

  1. Which are the various developments of reactive dyes?
  2. Describe Flurotriazine reactive dyes.
  3. Describe Low salt(LS) reactive dyes.
  4. Describe the New Polyfunctional reactive dye.
  5. Describe Fluorescent reactive dyes.
  6. Describe Mixed functional dyes.


Ahmed, S. (2014, September 29). Reactive dyes - classification. TextileTuts.

Chakraborty, J. N. (2010). Waste-water problem in textile industry. In Fundamentals and Practices in Colouration of Textiles (pp. 381–408). Elsevier.

Clark, M. (2011). Handbook of textile and industrial dyeing: Principles, processes and types of dyes (Matthew Clark, Ed.). Woodhead Publishing.

No title. (n.d.). from

Patwary, E. M. Z. (2012, February 18). Reactive dyes. Textile Fashion Study; Engr. Mohammad Zillane Patwary.

Sayed, A. (n.d.). Why reactive dye is so called? from

(N.d.). from

What are Reactive Dyes? Types of Reactive Dyes. (n.d.). from

Continue reading,


 - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college Ichalkaranji)
Email Id -

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