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Yarn mercerizing

Methods of Mercerization 

  1. Cold Mercerization
  2. Hot Mercerization
  3. Ammonia Mercerization 
  4. Yarn Mercerization
  5. Fabric Mercerization
  6. Slack Mercerization
Yarn mercerizing
Yarn mercerizing

(4) Yarn mercerizing: 

Yarn is mercerized in two ways: 

(A) Hank form 
(B) Continuous sheet (warp) form. 

Yarn mercerisation in hank form - 

In the process of "hank mercerization," hanks are loaded onto a pair of tension rollers, which move vertically to apply tension to the hank. 

At the same time, a spray releases sodium hydroxide onto the yarn, and squeeze rollers begin to squeeze the yarn to aid in the alkali's absorption. The tension rollers are also used to wash the wash water and the acid while evenly impregnating them with alkali. 

To remove the caustic, the sprayer then sprays hot water, followed by cold water, and finally, as the tension is removed, acid is sprayed to neutralise the fabric. 

Machine description: 

(1) Two guide rollers are arranged parallel and horizontally or vertically.
(2) The dia of every roller is 4”-6”.
(3) One of two rollers is geared to drive anticlockwise or clockwise where Mercerization of grey yarn or blended yarn is done using the yarn Mercerisation machine.
(4) A pointer attached to the moveable roller moves against a graduated scale that indicates the quantity of tension applied to the yarn.
(5) The distance between the 2 guide rollers is altered consistent with the scale of the hank. 
(6) Synthetic rubber-coated padding roller is placed on guide roller, mounted on ball-bearing to avoid any drag of slip of yarn. This rubber squeezer roller near the fixed roller is operated in close contact with the fixed roller when necessary. The rubber squeezer roller helps to get rid of the surplus alkali from the yarn.
(7) Two trays are utilized in the machine where one is a moveable tray containing mercerizing solution. 
(8) The yarn in hank form is mounted on the 2 rollers & the desired tension is about. Below the 2 rollers are often placed a movable trough to gather the spent alkali & wash water.
(9) 18 to 22% hydrated oxide of the Mercerization liquor is employed from the overhead tank.
(10) The sodium hydroxide collected from the ultimate squeezing of the Mercerization yarn is distributed to the overhead tank for reuse.
(11) The wash liquor is collected separately and to a hydroxide recovery plant.
(12) The recovery solution is going to be lower in concentration and so freshly hydrated oxide is dissolved into it to bring it back to Mercerization concentration.

Process sequence:
(1) The yarn of hank form is placed on the guide rollers whilst they're close.
(2) The yarn is then impregnated within the through containing sodium hydroxide solution.
(3) Impregnation is maintained up to half the mercerizing rollers.
(4) The yarn rotates within the alkali solution and stretched the guide rollers and at the identical time squeezes the rollers of the yarn to confirm penetration.
(5) Impregnation time is approximately 3 minutes so allow the tray is roofed.
(6) The yarns are washed using a spraying unit and squeezed. the primary washing is with plight then cold water.
(7) The washed yarn is treated with0.002% H2SO4 to get rid of alkali.
(8) The stretching is disbursed to not exceed an elongation of 3-5%with reference initial length.
(9) Finally the rollers are brought close to the facility for the removal of stretched yarn. 


(1) The yarn must be mounted evenly on the rollers. 
(2) The temp of alkali is going to be below 15°C. 
(3) Tension variation must be reduced. 
Yarn in sheet form for wet process
Yarn in sheet form for wet process


Yarn mercerizing in continuous sheet form:

In the continuous yarn Mercerisation, the continuous package is processed. Hank Mercerization is batch operation the is that the continuous one. 

The stretch wheel may be a device which causes the yarn to be held back slightly and hence the take-up is therefore winding on the yarn somewhat faster than it's leaving the relieving package. 

This creates the stretch that successively provides stress to the material. This process is more uniform and hence more economical also.

Machine description
(1) A series of boxes as many as eighteen are used. There are arrangements of compacting rollers are guide rollers in each box.
(2) The guide rollers are of 12” in dia made from brass or iron.
And The squeezing rollers are of 10” in dia, 36” in length and are covered with rubber.
(3) The squeezing rollers are driven at a constant speed and therefore the pressure is applied using weight and lever.

Process sequence:

(1) The warps first labour under 2-4 boxes, where they're boiled in a very suitable solution of dilute sodium hydroxide and alizarine red oil(TRO), the sequestering agent is also used.
(2) The liquor is typically heated by closed steam coils. The warps then passed through1-2boxes, containing cold water for cooling and rinsing. 
(3) Then warps are squeezed and pass through3-4boxes containing hydroxide solution of mercerizing strength. 
(4) Mercerization time 3-5 minutes.
(5) Penetration is assisted by the rubber-coated rollers which determine the quantity of tension on the yarn. 
(6) Then 3-0 boxes are used for washing- 
(7) In 2-4boxes, hot washed at60°C temp
(8) Last 2 boxes are used for a cold wash.
(9) Small quantity of acid is employed for neutralization. 
Yarn mercerization machine principle
Yarn mercerization machine principle

Questions -

  1. What are the methods of mercerization?
  2. What are the types of yarn mercerization?
  3. Describe Yarn mercerisation in hank form.
  4. Describe Yarn mercerizing in continuous sheet form.


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Further reading,

 - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college Ichalkaranji)

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