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Padless-chainless Mercerization machine

Methods of Mercerization 

  1. Cold Mercerization
  2. Hot Mercerization
  3. Ammonia Mercerization 
  4. Yarn Mercerization
  5. Fabric Mercerization
  6. Slack Mercerization

There are three types of woven fabric mercerization on the basis of tension applied to the fabric.

Explanation of the above machines - 

Padless-chainless Mercerization machine - 

In this mangle, an impregnation tank replaces the mangle, allowing the cloth to come into touch with bowed rollers while also being employed to maintain tension during the rinse process.
The fabric is pulled toward the selvedge by the rollers' curvature, yet at the same time, the alkali's swelling action causes the fabric to try and narrow in breadth.
The tension in the cloth is caused by these outward and inward pulls.

Principle - In this machine, tension is applied to the fabric (warp and weftwise) right from the beginning of the Impregnation step to the stabilization step. In the other two machines fabric is allowed to shrink first and then stretched.

Machine description: 

No need for padding mangle or chain (centre). Fabric is mercerized in tension.
No arrangement of pressure or squeezing.
A wetting agent is employed in hydrated oxide solution. Tension pulleys are present thanks to the variation of tension. 
For light fabric, 45-65 lb pressure is employed and for coarse fabric 250, lb pressure is employed.
Padless-chainless Mercerization machine
Padless-chainless Mercerization machine

Padless-chainless Mercerization machine

Process sequence: 

(1) The fabric is entered within the bath of hydroxide solution with two down rollers.

(2) Simultaneously, hydroxide is dropped on two lifted rollers with two pipes. so the impregnation becomes proper. 

(3) The fabric advances 5yds in-tuned with other rollers so that sodium hydroxide can penetrate perfectly into the fabric. 

(4) Then the material is more experienced pressure mangle and fabric advance of 8 yds, during this time, the fabric is mercerized and 40-60 time required.

(5) Then the material is washed with a quandary at 70°C by some rollers by spraying or counter consent process. 

(6) Then the material is washed properly with cold water. 

(7) In this machine 9-26 yards of material is mercerized. Simultaneously two fabrics may be mercerized. 

Different zones in Padless-Chainless Mercerization

(a) Impregnation Zone
(b) Dwelling & Stabilization Zone
(c) Recuperator Zone 
(d) Washing Zone 


Explanation -
(a) Impregnation Zone -. 

The impregnation bath was a series of top and bottom stainless steel curved rollers. The lower roller is dipped in a caustic soda solution (26 to 30%).

In addition, caustic soda is sprayed on a cloth from the top. There is warpwise tension due to the cloth contact of rollers. This is weftwise tension due to the Curvature of rollers tension is applied right from the beginning.

(b) Dwelling & Stabilization Zone - 

It also contains curved stainless steel rollers in close contact with each other. Hot and cold water is sprayed from the top.
The rinsed water is collected at the bottom and sent to the caustic recovery plant (CRP).

(c) Recuperator Zone - 

Fabric is passed through this unit having Steam treatment to wash off residual Alkali i.e fabric is steamed to remove trace of caustic.

(d) Washing zone - 

After steaming the cloth entered 3 to 4 washing chambers.

(e) Souring -
Fabric is neutralized with dilute hydrochloric acid or dilute Acetic acid in the last chamber.

Padless-chainless Mercerization machine

Advantages of Padless-Chainless Mercerization- 

  • As tension is applied right from the beginning of the Impregnation stage original dimensions of the fabric are easily achieved Hence, the resultant Lustre is very good.
  • Higher production rate, because two ends of fabric can be mercerized together.
  •  i.e two batches or two different rollers are Mercerized together.

The disadvantage of Padless-Chainless Mercerization– 

  • Even though good control over shrinkage still widthwise dimensions like chain Mercerization may not be achieved.
Various mercerization machine
Various mercerization machine

Questions -

  1. Describe the Padless-chainless Mercerization machine.
  2. Which methods are used for the mercerization process?
  3. What are the different zones in Padless-Chainless Mercerization
  4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Padless-chainless Mercerization machine?


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 - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college Ichalkaranji)

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