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Pad-Chainless Mercerization machine

Methods of Mercerization 

  1. Cold Mercerization
  2. Hot Mercerization
  3. Ammonia Mercerization 
  4. Yarn Mercerization
  5. Fabric Mercerization
  6. Slack Mercerization

There are three types of woven fabric mercerization on the basis of tension applied to the fabric.

Explanation of the above machines -  

Pad-Chainless Mercerization machine - 

Principle - In this case, tension is applied to the Fabric during alkali impregnation itself so, the fabric is not allowed to shrink.

Procedure or process sequence -

The first fabric passes through the Alkali Impregnation mangle having 30% NaOH at 40°C.

Then the fabric is passing through the second Alkali Impregnation mangle having 30%NaOH at 27°C.

Then the fabric is passed through the stabilization zone.

After the stabilization zone, the fabric is passed through Recuperator Zone.

Last but not the least, the fabric is passed through the washing unit.  

Pad-Chainless Mercerization machine
Pad-Chainless Mercerization machine

Different zones in Pad-Chainless Mercerization-

(a) Impregnation Zone 
(b) Dwelling Zone
(c) Stabilization Zone 
(d) Recuperator Zone 
(e) Washing Zone Explanation 

(a) Impregnation Zone -.
First alkali impregnation mangle (30%NaOH, temperature=40°C).

The scoured and bleached cotton fabric is passed through a padding mangle containing 55°-65°Tw the NaOH solution at 40°C for 2-3 min with tension.
Then the padded fabric is squeezed with a squeezing roller.

The second alkali impregnation mangle has (30%NaOH) caustic at a temperature of 27°C for 60 to 75 seconds.

(b) Dwelling Zone - 

In between padding mangle, fabric goes around a set of rollers for reaction to take place about 1 minute.
In this period Swelling and penetration of caustic soda are complete.

(c) Stabilization Zone -
After padding cloth passes over specially curved 6 to 10 expander rollers which make possible even expansion over whole width expansion depending on-

(i) Diameter of roller 
(ii) Curvature of roller

In the stabilization zone, the cloth is rinsed with hot water and cold water to bring caustic to less than 10%.

(d) Recuperator Zone -

Fabric is passed through this unit having Steam treatment to wash off residual Alkali i.e fabric is steamed to remove trace of caustic.

(e) Washing zone -

(i) Hot water wash - After Steam treatment the fabric is passed through hot water wash.

(ii) Souring with Hydrochloric acid (HCl) - Hot water wash is followed by scouring treatment with Hydrochloric acid to neutralize the remaining alkali.

(iii) Cold water wash - Scouring is followed by a cold water wash to cool down the temperature of the fabric.

Pad-Chainless Mercerization machine
Pad-Chainless Mercerization machine

Advantages of Pad-Chainless Mercerization -

  • In this method, better control over width takes place i.e uniform expansion.

The disadvantage of Pad-Chainless Mercerization - 

  • Complete recovery of the original width may not be possible.
  • Pad-Chainless Mercerization will result in reduced Lustre than Pad-chain Mercerization.
Various mercerization machine
Various mercerization machine

Questions -
  1. Describe the Pad-Chainless Mercerization machine.
  2. What are the methods used for mercerization?
  3. Which different zones are present in the Pad-Chainless Mercerization machine?
  4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Pad-Chainless Mercerization machine?


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Babu, S. (n.d.). Effect of mercerization and its importance, types of mercerizing machines, common structure and working principle of mercerizing machine.

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Further reading,

 - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college Ichalkaranji)

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