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Pad chain Mercerization machine

Methods of Mercerization 

  1. Cold Mercerization
  2. Hot Mercerization
  3. Ammonia Mercerization 
  4. Yarn Mercerization
  5. Fabric Mercerization
  6. Slack Mercerization

There are three types of woven fabric mercerization on the basis of tension applied to the fabric.

Explanation of the above machines - 

Pad chain Mercerization machine for mercerization

The cloth is twice dipped, squeezed in the padding mangle, and then passed across the cylinder through an air route to guarantee effective caustic absorption.

A system of clamps keeps the fabric taut before passing it through a water sprayer to remove the alkali once again.       

If the breadth of the selvedges weren't gripped, the fabric might shrink.

Principle - Fabric is allowed to shrink at the primary stage of Mercerization and tension is applied at lateral stages to bring material to the original dimension.

Procedure or process sequence -

(1) The scoured and bleached cotton fabric is passed through a padding mangle containing 55°-65°Tw the NaOH solution at 18°C for 2-3 min with tension.
(2) Then the padded fabric is squeezed with a squeezing roller. 
(3) Then the fabric is washed with hot water at 70°Cin proper tension.
(4) Then the fabric is washed with cold water two times. 
(5) The washed fabric is washed with 1°Tw H2SO4 for removing the remaining caustic soda.
(6) Then the fabric is dried and washed in cold water.

Machine description:

A high-speed pad chain mercerizing m/c capable of handling fabrics like poplin and at the identical time producing a high degree of lustre.
M/C compromises two power full 3-bowl angles followed by a significant pattern clip stenter machine fitted with washing and caustic recovery arrangements and souring and washing cisterns. 
The mangles are of open type, enabling the bowls to be easily changed.
Each mangle is arranged to produce either one or double immersion within the caustic liquor and two squeezes.
Pad chain Mercerization machine
Pad chain Mercerization machine
Pad chain Mercerization machine

Different zones Pad-chain Mercerization

(a) Impregnation zone
(b) Dwelling Zone
(c) Stabilization Zone 
(d) Recuperator Zone 
(e) Washing Zone 


Explanation -

(a) Impregnation Zone -.

First alkali impregnation mangle (30%NaOH, temperature=40°C )
The scoured and bleached cotton fabric is passed through a padding mangle containing 55°-65°Tw the NaOH solution at 40°C for 2-3 min with tension.
Then the padded fabric is squeezed with a squeezing roller.

Second alkali impregnation mangle has (30%NaOH) caustic at a temperature of 27°C for 60 to 75 seconds.

(b) Dwelling Zone - 

In between padding mangle, fabric goes around set of rollers for reaction to take place about 1 minute.
In this period Swelling and penetration of caustic soda are complete.

(c) Stabilization Zone - 

After Impregnation and Dwelling, the fabric is fed on dips of stenter. It is stretched weftwise on the centre to achieve the original width while stretching alkali is rinsed with overflowing water. 

The vacuum is applied to Cloth to remove water quickly.

Both hot water and cold water are used to bring down caustic less than 10%.

(d) Recuperator Zone - 

Fabric is passed through this unit having Steam treatment to wash off residual Alkali i.e fabric is steamed to remove trace of caustic.

(e) Washing zone -

Hot water wash - After Steam treatment the fabric is passed through a hot water wash.

Souring with Hydrochloric acid (HCl) - Hot water wash is followed by a scouring treatment with Hydrochloric acid to neutralize the remaining alkali.

Cold water wash - Scouring is followed by a cold water wash to cool down the temperature of the fabric.

Pad chain Mercerization machine
Pad chain Mercerization machine

Advantages of Pad-chain Mercerization -

  • Quick and uniform swelling as the cloth is allowed to shrink.
  • Good Lustre and original width can be easily achieved on stenter.

The disadvantage of Pad-chain Mercerization- 

  • Stenter unit is Very long and occupied a large amount of space.
  • Only certain width of fabric limited to stenter width can be used.
  • Force-keeping material under tension acts mainly on selvedges hence, there is more elongation at the selvedge.
Various mercerization machine
Various mercerization machine

Questions -

  1. Describe the Pad chain Mercerization machine.
  2. What are the types of mercerization methods?
  3. Explain various zones of the Pad chain Mercerization machine.
  4. What are the advantage and disadvantages of the Pad chain Mercerization machine?


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 - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college Ichalkaranji)

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