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Rot steep and Acid steep methods for desizing


Classification of Desizing methods

The desizing process of the fabric can be classified into main three categories, as per the chemicals and methods are subcategories. 

Desizing methods

A) Hydrolytic methods

B) Oxidation methods

C) Novel methods

A)Rot steep

A) Chlorine

A) Solvent

B)Acid steep

B) Chlorite

B) Desizing 2000

C) Enzymatic 

D) Alkali desizing

C) Bromite

C) Low-temperature plasma treatment

Rot steep method

This is the most basic and least expensive method of downsizing. 

The cloth is first bathed in warm water at 40° C and then passed through a padded mangle to achieve 100% expressiveness.

This simply means that the mangle pressure is set so that the cloth is squeezed to retain 100% of its water weight. 

After that, the cloth is placed in a tank and let stand for 24 hours.

Mechanism- fermentation

Microorganisms that live in water multiply and secrete starch liquefying enzymes, which hydrolyze the starch. 

The fabric is finally rinsed with water after the majority of the starch has been removed.

Recipe- Hot water- To get 100%expression Temperature- 40°C

Precautions -

The actual process here is one of fermentation, and it's important to keep the fermentation from being too aggressive during rot steeping, otherwise, the cellulose will be attacked and weakened.
The accompanying diagram depicts the basic procedures of desizing textile fabric.

Advantage -

It is the most economical process of all desizing methods.
It requires no chemical which is the biggest advantage over other processes.

Disadvantage -

It is a slow process of desizing involving 7 hours.
This process required large floor space.
There is a danger of mildew attacking and weakening the cloth if the steeping is not properly monitored.

Rot steep method for desizing
Rot steep method

Acid steep method

Acid desizing requires a dilute sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid solution with a concentration of at least 0.2 percent weight by volume at room temperature.

In a two-bowl or three-bowl padding mangle, as shown in the figure, the cloth is impregnated with the dilute solution.

In the mangle, the acid-impregnated cloth is squeezed evenly and batched wet on a roller.

The wet roll is covered in polythene film and stored in a room, rotating gently during the desizing phase to maintain it uniformly wet.

After the stipulated storage time, which varies based on the type of cloth and the amount size in it,

The fabric is washed in an open-width soaper until it is free of acid and size component hydrolysis products.

Recipe -
Mineral acid - 0.5 to 1 % Temperature - 30 °C

During the intermediate storage process, care is required to ensure that the acid-treated wet roll of cloth is adequately covered and rotated.
If any section of the fabric dries out before being washed, hydro cellulose will form, weakening the material.

Advantage -

The process is economical.
It is Quicker than rot steeping.
It does not requires specific conditions of temperature and PH and can be done at room temperature.

Disadvantage -

The major disadvantage of the process is that care must be taken to prevent the weakening of the cloth or fabric.

Acid steep process for desizing
Acid steep process

  • Simply immerse the fabric to be desired in rope form in the acid in a huge tank and cover it with a clean, heavy fabric and a layer of polythene film for a cost-effective alternative to the acid desizing procedure.
  • After desizing, the fabric will be washed in a rope washing machine until it is acid-free and the size constituents are no longer visible on the surface.

Questions -

  1. What is the rot steep method in desizing processing?
  2. What is the acid steep method in desizing processing?
  3. Which are the main three desizing methods?
  4. Give recipe for the rot steep method.
  5. Give a recipe for the acid steep method.
  6. What are the advantage and disadvantages of rot steep and acid steep methods?


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Further reading,

 - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college Ichalkaranji)
Email Id -

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