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Introduction of sizing processing


The yarn just coming from the spinning machine is not suitable to weave the fabric on the loom much more efficiently. There are many many problems faced by weavers during weaving without sizing.

Necessity of sizing

The warp yarn is subjected to a variety of stresses and strains, which causes the yarn to break. The loom must be halted/stopped if an end is broken. 

This diminishes the machine's efficiency and output, increases the workload on the weavers, and results in the material of sab standard quality. 

Thus, the warp breakage rate is a commonly accepted criterion for judging the ability to weave a warp. These types of breaks are generally caused by the various stresses that are imposed on the warp during the weaving process. 

The primary goal of all the processes is to reduce the warp end break, which will weave a quality fabric with maximum loom efficiency.

  • The following problems are faced during weaving without size-

1. Poor strength as required in the weaving
2. Abrasion/friction between -

  1. (a)  Yarn to yarn

  2. (b)  Metal to yarn

  3. (c)  Wooden to yarn

    These abrasions result in strength loss

3. Cohesive forces of short fibres result in the following causes -

  1. (a)  End breakages

  2. (b)  Loss of strength

  3. (c)  Loss in quality

  4. (d)  Loss of production

  5. (e)  Loss of economy

Sizing process -

Sizing is the process of adding a protective adhesive covering or coating to the yarn surface; it is the most crucial operation for achieving maximum weaving efficiency, particularly for blended and filament yarns. 

Sizing improves the elasticity, strength, weight, smoothness, and frictional resistance of yarn.

The goal of sizing is to bind the fibres and coat the yarn to increase strength and abrasion resistance while also making it smooth and uniform. 

This can be accomplished using a variety of mechanical techniques such as dipping the yarn in size paste and drying it.

The objective of sizing -

  1. (1)  To impart or improve the weave ability of warp or spun yarn

  2. (2)  To prepare the warp which can handle stresses and strains during the weaving


  3. (3)  To reduce the end breakages during weaving

  4. (4)  To maintain good fabric quality by reducing weakness, and hairiness and increasing

    smoothness and strength of the yarn

  5. (5)  To increase the elasticity

  1. (6)  To remove the projecting fibres

  2. (7)  To reduce electrostatic formation for synthetic or blended yarn

  3. (8)  To improve abrasion resistance

  4. (9)  Making the yarn smooth and uniform

Types of sizing

Light sizing

This is used for dyeing and printing fabric.

10 to 15 % Sizing ingredients are used on the weight of the fabric.

Pure sizing

When sizing is done in the yarn which produces unbleached fabric is called pure sizing.

15 to 25 % sizing ingredients are used in the weight of the fabric.

Medium sizing

Sizing ingredients are used on the weight of the yarn.

25 to 50 % sizing ingredients are used to increase the strength and weight of the yarn.

Heavy sizing

To increase the weight of the yarn its application on twisted yarn and lower court of yarn.

Above 50% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn.

Sizing machine
Sizing machine

Questions -

  1. Why size the yarn from spinning?
  2. Why not go directly for weaving?
  3. What are the objectives of sizing?
  4. What are the types of sizing?


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Ahmed, T., Mia, R., Ishraque Toki, G. F., Jahan, J., Hasan, M. M., Saleh Tasin, M. A., Farsee, M. S., & Ahmed, S. (2021). Evaluation of sizing parameters on cotton using the modified sizing agent. Cleaner Engineering and Technology5(100320), 100320.

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Further reading,

 - Rushikesh Patil (Textile Engineer)
(DKTE Society textile engineering college Ichalkaranji)
Email Id -

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