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Yarn manufacturing introduction

Introduction of the yarn manufacturing process

In textile material, yarn is the key element because all types of fabric (Excluding nonwoven) are made from yarn.

Spinning is the process of converting fibres into yarn or spun fibres in the yarn.

In the textile process, the spinning units have a vital and basic role in producing any fabric or textile materials.

DSPAT yarn types
Various types of yarn

  • For natural fibres, ginning is the primary process from which fibres are cleaned from plants and ready for the spinning process.
  • In the spinning process, it is completed opened, cleaned, and mixed with each other according to product types and then converted from fibres to spun yarn.

  • In spun yarn spinning process, only fibres with a long staple length (4 inches or longer) are taken for further or up to the ending process. 

The yarn is carded and combed thus making them stronger, finer, and smoother.


Spinning mills are significant for textile industries as they transfigure fibre into yarn and yarn into fabric. 

  • In the olden days, People used to convert fibres into yarn by the manual spinning process with the help of basic instruments like charkha and carder.

The principle of charkha is to drag the fibre strand from cleaned cotton tufts and with the help of a spinning wheel convert them into yarn by imparting twists.

The principle of the carder is making yarn by using a tool called bare hand to align parallel the yarns before twisting. 

DSPAT Conventional spinning

DSPAT conventional spinning
Conventional yarn formation techniques  

  • Later as the industrial revolution happened in the textile field, this yarn formation process is replaced by the advanced technology of mechanical machines and instruments in modern spinning. 

In spun yarn spinning, machines like a set of blow-room machines, carding, draw-frame, lap former, comber, speed frame, ring frame, and winding are used to form the yarn.


In advanced spun yarn technology spinning like rotor, air-jet, and friction is used for separate applications of yarn.

  • For manmade fibres, petrochemicals are the primary process from which raw materials for filaments are prepared.

In the spinning process, it melts, dries, and wets according to the product types and then converts from polymers to filament yarn.


DSPAT spinning
Manmade yarn formation


In manmade filament spinning, a closed chamber, extractor, spin bath, spinnerets, heating chamber, or cooling chamber are used for forming manmade filament fibres later this will convert into yarn by binding or imparting of slight twist.

(Link - Read more about manmade spinning)

Yarn quality

In the Textile Industry or in spinning, the size of yarns is determined by the unit of Tex, Count, Worsted, Woollen, and Denier.

The yarn is also classified according to its ply number. Ply is the combination of two more than two yarns with each other and according to several ply, yarns have different properties and applications.

Furthermore, the formation of yarn can be classified according to slub yarn, thick yarn, thin yarn, ring-spun yarn, open-end yarn, fancy yarn, and many more.

Produced yarn is checked by special parameters like twist amount, direction, fibre length, trash, elongation, colour, mic, strength, evenness, hairiness, and others.


The quality of the yarn is decided according to the test report of the above parameters and the price is also decided accordingly.

Questions -

  1. How is yarn manufactured?
  2. What is the process to manufacture yarn?
  3. How does conventional spinning work?
  4. What is the principle of the charkha to make yarn?
  5. How man-made yarn is made?
  6. How yarn quality is determined?


Infomedia, T. (2020, February 11). Spinning Process - Textile Spinning Process flow step-by-step guide. Textile & Fashion Blogs; Textile Infomedia.

Kidus, K. (2018). Yarn manufacturing process. YM.

Manager, I. C. (2011, March 30). Cotton yarn manufacturing.; Your Joomla! Site hosted with

Patra, R. (2017, December 6). Yarn Manufacturing Process – How is yarn made? Patra Selections Blog: Silk Clothing and Underwear.

Yarn Manufacturing Processes. (n.d.). Scribd. from

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(N.d.-b). from http://chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/

Read More -


Spinning sequence

Manmade spinning

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