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Fabric manufacturing introduction

Introduction of the fabric Manufacturing process

Fabric is the key element of the textile sector. All the process that happens in this field is around the fabric. 

There are an enormous amount of fabric types present with their unique designs, properties, and end-users.

Fabric formation is done by various methods according to the fabric types.

This formation is known as the weaving process. However, the weaving process is broad term and it includes several processes.

DSPAT fabric types
Various fabric

Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarn or threads are interlaced at specific angles and produce a fabric cloth. 

It can be produced by woven multiple threads, interloped threads, and interlaced threads known as methods like woven, knitting, felting, and braiding and by nonwoven methods. 

Fabric can be formed widely in the loom machine, rather than the loom, knitting, and nonwoven fabric formation methods are also popular.

In the olden days, fabrics were formed manually with the help of a basic loom or knitting needles.

Conventional loom

Woven fabric on the loom

The machine used to weave the fabric is known as a weaving machine or loom. 

In the loom weaving process producing a fabric is done by interlacing warp and weft threads. 

  • The longitudinal threads of the weaving process are called the warp or ends and the lateral threads are the weft or picks.
  • Cloth is basically woven on the loom machine.
  • A Loom machine is a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them.
  • The weave is the way of warp and weft filling and their interlacement with each other. 
  • The plain, twill, and satin or sateen is the three main weave design of woven fabric while the rest of the design is a combination of modifications of these weaves.

Weaving Preparatory - 

Winding, Warping, Sizing

Before weaving starts in the loom, there is some preparatory process like winding, warping, and sizing is done.

In the winding process, yarn is wound onto the cone or cheese package from the yarn cop bobbin. During this process, slub yarn, thick place, thin pace, and a faulty portion of yarn are removed by various mechanisms.

In the warping section, the numbers of warp threads are wind parallel to teach others to prepare warp sheets. This warp sheet is going to the loom for weaving the fabric. For warping various mechanisms and mixing of coloured threads are also present.

In the sizing process, the warp sheet is coated or dipped into the sizing materials. Sizing is vital to prevent yarn from rubbing and friction during the weaving process.

Types of looms

Based on technique

  1. Plain power loom
  2. Semi-plain power loom
  3. Shuttle-less loom

Based on shedding:

  1. Tappet mechanism
  2. Dobby mechanism
  3. Jacquard mechanism
Based on picking:
  1. Shuttle looms
  2. Semi-automatic shuttle loom (changing of pirn is automatic)
  3. Shuttle-less looms
  4. Air-jet loom
  5. Water-jet loom
  6. Projectile loom
  7. Rapier loom

Fabric formed by these types is useful for almost all places where fabric is required. However, the wide application of these loom fabrics is in garments and home furnishings. Rather than these, the woven fabric is also used in technical aspects, civil applications, and in the medical field.

DSPAT Shuttle loom fabric
Fabric produced by shuttle loom

Fabric formation by knitting

Knitting is also a woven type of fabric formation technique with loops.

In knitting fabric, the fabric is formed by interlacing formed loops with each other in various manners.

Knitting fabric have also two main types, warp knitting, and weft knitting.

In this technology, various machine-like Single beds, V-bed or double beds, circular, cylinders with ribs, tricots, and Rachel machines are available to produce various kinds of fabrics.

In knitting technology, loops are formed with the help of several needles, and sinkers. Furthermore, for the complex structure of the fabric, guide bars, and other elements are used.

Fabric formed by this type is useful for daily garment applications, especially for casual or nightwear. Rather than this, in baggage, technical aspects, and in the medical field also knitting fabric is useful.

DSPAT knit fabric
Knitted fabric

Fabric formation by a nonwoven method

Nonwoven fabric is another technique of fabric formation which is widely used for industrial fabrics. 

Nonwoven fabrics such as a spun-bond, needle spun, hydro-entanglement, wet-laid, dry-laid, melt blown, stitched, or others.

Nonwoven fabric formation techniques mainly depend on its end-use. The machine required for this type of fabric also varies as per the types of nonwoven fabric.

Fabric formed by this type is useful for more technical aspects, in geotextiles, medical applications, and civil constructions.

  • The fabric formation process also includes chemical treatment and other finishing processes like desizing, scouring, mercerizing, dyeing, printing, and many more according to its end application and requirement.
  • Fabric formation also includes fabric tests like its strength, dimensional stability, fastness, permeability, comfort, handle, lustre, inspection, defects, and other parameters.
Questions -
  1. How fabric is manufactured?
  2. What is weaving preparatory?
  3. Which are the different types of looms?
  4. How yarn is woven into fabric?
  5. How fabric is formed by the knitting process?
  6. How fabric is formed by the nonwoven process?


Fabric manufacturing process- How our fabric is made. (2018, August 29). Klopman; Klopman International.

Rahman, S.-U. (2016). Textile fibre to fabric processing.

Uddin, F. (2019). Textile Manufacturing Processes (F. Uddin, Ed.). IntechOpen.

(N.d.-a). from

(N.d.-b). from http://chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/

Further reading -

Fabric structure

CAD software


Denim fabric

Knitted fabric

Chemical processing

Writer - 

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