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Fabric abrasion resistance property

Fabric abrasion resistance

DSPAT Fabric reach in abrasion property
Fabric reach in abrasion property 

  • Abrasion resistance is the value of the wearing away of any portion of materials when that portion is rubbed against any other materials or surfaces.
  • Fabrics are subjected to abrasion during their lifetimes and this may result in wear, deterioration, damage, and a loss of performance.
  • Garments which are made from higher abrasion resistance fabric can be able to work for a long period and not easily show physically damaged wear appearance.
  • Nylon fabric has a higher value of abrasion resistance, so it is widely used for action outwear and often mixed with materials that have lower abrasion resistance values.

Parameters affecting testing of abrasion resistance.

The parameters or reasons for abrasion resistance of the fabric are influenced by several parameters.
This is happening due to the experiments that have been carried out at various conditions for various fabric materials.
Therefore the consequence is not comparable with each other and often opposing results data have been found.
However, some major factors have the following kinds of effects.

Fibre types and their properties - 

The abrasion resistance of fabric mainly depends on its component fibre types and their properties. 

The ability of a fibre to withstand repeated distortion is the key to its type of abrasion resistance. Therefore high elongation, elastic recovery, and work of rupture are considered to be more important factors for a good degree of abrasion resistance in fibre than high strength. 

The result of abrasion is the gradual removal of fibres from the yarns. 

As a result, certain factors that affect the cohesion of yarns will influence their abrasion resistance properties.

Fibres like Nylon, Polyester, and polypropylene have good abrasion resistance. (Nylon have higher among these).

In the case of Blended like either nylon or polyester with wool and cotton have increased their abrasion resistance at the expense of other properties. 

Fibres like Acrylic and modacrylic have a lower resistance while fibres like wool, cotton, and high wet modulus viscose have a moderate abrasion resistance. 

Fibres like Viscose and acetates have the lowest degree of resistance to abrasion. 

Synthetic fibres are produced in many different versions so that the abrasion resistance of a particular variant may not conform to the general ranking of fibres. 

Fibres with a longer length in a fabric tend to have better abrasion resistance than short fibres because they are harder to remove from the yarn. For the same reason filament yarns are more abrasion resistant than staple yarns made from the same fibre?

An increment in fibre diameter up to a limit improves abrasion resistance. Above the limit, the increasing strains encountered in bending counteract any further advantage and a decrease in the number of fibres in the cross-section lowers the fibre cohesion. 

Yarn twist 

The amount of twist and twist angle of a yarn, used for fabric formation has a vital role in fabric Abrasion resistance property.

The optimum amount of twist in a yarn is to give the best abrasion resistance. At low-twist factors, fibres can easily be removed from the yarn so that it is gradually reduced in diameter. At high-twist levels, the fibres are held more tightly but the yarn is stiffer so it is unable to flatten or distort under pressure when being abraded. 

Abrasion resistance also increases with an increasing linear density of yarn at constant fabric mass per unit area. The crimp of the yarns is also in the fabric and affects whether the warp or the weft is abraded the most.

Fabric structure 

The way fabric is woven, or its structure types affect the Abrasion resistance property.

Fabrics with the crimp evenly distributed between warp and weft give the best wear because the damage is spread evenly between them. 

If one set of yarns is significantly on the surface then this set will wear the most.

One set of yarns can also be protected by using floats in other settings such as in a sateen or twill weave. 

The relative mobility of the floats helps to absorb the stress. There is an optimum value for fabric sett for best abrasion resistance. 

The more threads per centimetre there are in a fabric, the less force each individual thread has to take. 

However, as the threads become jammed together they are then unable to deflect under load and thus absorb the distortion. 

Questions -

  1. Why fabric abrasion resistance is measured?
  2. What are the parameters affecting the testing of abrasion resistance?
  3. Describe the abrasion resistance of different fibres.
  4. How yarn twist affects the abrasion resistance?
  5. How fabric structure affects abrasion resistance?


Booth, J. E. :. (n.d.). Principles of textile testing an introduction to physical methods of testing textile fibres, yarns, and fabrics. London: National Trade Press Ltd,1961. from

Cenote, M. (2015). Google Books. In The SAGE Guide to Key Issues in Mass Media Ethics and Law (pp. 847–858). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Ferreiro López-Riobóo, J. I. (2015). Long-term (2001–2012) study of a proficiency testing scheme for textiles. Accreditation and Quality Assurance20(4), 239–245.

Shimo, S. S. (2017, December 6). Abrasion and abrasion resistance test. Textile Study Center.

Shiraga, A. (n.d.). Understanding abrasion testing. from

(N.d.). from http://chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/

Further reading -

Part-1 Fabric abrasion resistance property

Part-2 Measurement and assessment of abrasion of the fabric

Part-3 Martindale abrasion and pilling tester

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