Yarn count measurement methods - Direct and Indirect method
Yarn diameter and mass |
Direct system for the count measurement
Direct system the linear density of the yarn is measured by the weight per unit length of sampling yarn.
A direct system is based on a fixed-length system
A direct system is a universally used system to measure the linear density of the yarn.
In the Direct system as the yarn become finer the count becomes lower and vice versa.
In the Direct system, Tex, Denier, and Decitex are generally used as linear density.
Tex - Tex is the Weight of yarn in grams of 1000 m length.
A sample yarn that has a length of 1000 m and a weight of 15 gm is a sample of 15 tex yarn.
Tex system is a SI system to measure the linear density of a yarn.
Yarn number system | Symbolic abbreviation | Unit of mass used | Unit of length used | Multiplying factors yarn numbers to tex value |
Tex | Tt | 1g | 1km | - |
Denier | Td | 1g | 9000 m | 0.1111 |
Linen, dry spun, Hemp, Jute | Tj | 1 lb | 14400 yd (Spindle unit) | 34.45 |
Woolen | Taw | 1lb | 14400yd | 34.45 |
Denier-Tex is the Weight of yarn in grams of 9000 m in length.
A sample yarn that has a length of 9000 m and a weight of 20 gm is a sample of 20 Denier yarn.
Decitex - Decitex is the Weight of yarn in grams of 10000 m in length.
A sample yarn that has a length of 10000 m and a weight of 30 gm is a sample of 30 Decitex yarn.
Some relation between the above direct system parameter.
1 Tex = 10 Decitex
The general formula for direct system
N = (W*l)/L
Where,
N = the yarn number or count
W = the weight of the sample at the official regain in the units of the system
L = the length of the sample
l = the unit length of the system
Indirect system for measuring yarn count
Indirect system the linear density of the yarn is measured by the length per unit weight of sampling yarn.
The indirect system is based on a fixed weight system.
An indirect system is a traditional system to measure the linear density of the yarn.
The indirect system is mainly known as a count system that is widely used in India.
In the Indirect system as the yarn becomes finer the count becomes higher and vice versa.
In the Indirect system Worsted count, Cotton count, and Metric count are generally used as linear density.
Worsted count (Ne w) - worsted count is the number of hanks of 560 yards length and 1 lb weight of yarn sample.
Cotton count (Ne c) - Cotton count is the number of hanks of 840 yards length and 1 lb weight of yarn sample.
Metric count (Nm) - Metric count is the number of lengths in kilometres per 1 kg of yarn sample.
Some relation between the above direct system parameter.
1 Tex = 10 Decitex
The general formula for indirect system
N = (w*L)/l*W
Where,
N = the yarn number or count
W = the weight of the sample (at the standard regains value.)
L = the length of the sample
l = the unit length of the system
w = The unit weight of the system
For Cotton count
Ne c = 0.54*L/W
Where,
L = the length of the sample
W = the weight of the sample at the official regain in the units of the system
Yarn Conversion Chart
(Count to count Conversion)
Conver into known | Tex | Decitex (dtex) | Denier (den) | Metric No. (Nm) | English Cotton No. (Ne) |
Tex | - | dtex*tex | den*9 | 1000/tex | 591/tex |
Decitex (dtex) | dtex/10 | - | 0.9*dtex | 10000/dtex | 5910/dtex |
Denier (den) | den/9 | den/0.9 | - | 9000/den | 5314/den |
Metric No. (Nm) | 1000/Nm | 10000/Nm | 9000/Nm | - | 0.59*Nm |
English Cotton No. (Ne) | 591/Ne | 5910/Ne | 5314/Ne | Ne*1.69 | - |
In some labs, a yarn count converter is used which contains standard calibration with the above tables in the metallic plate.
Yarn count converter |
- What is the direct system? OR define the direct system.
- How direct system is used to measure the yarn count?
- Define Tex, Denier, Decitex.
- What are the units of Tex, Denier, Decitex?
- what is the general formula for the direct system?
- What is the indirect system? OR define the indirect system.
- How indirect system is used to measure the yarn count?
- Define worsted count, cotton count, and metric count.
- What are the units of Define worsted count, cotton count, and metric count?
- what is the general formula for the indirect system?
- The draw is a yarn count conversion chart? OR draw a count-to-count conversion table.
References
Lord, P. R. (2003). Handbook of yarn production: Technology, science and economics (1st ed.). Woodhead Publishing.
NPTEL IITm. (n.d.). Nptel.Ac.In. from https://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102029
Saville, B. P. (1999). Physical testing of textiles. Woodhead Publishing.
Testometric co. Ltd. (n.d.). Testometric.co.uk. from https://www.testometric.co.uk/
Yarn tests. (2019, July 23). ATIRA; Ahmedabad Textile Industry’s Research Association. https://atira.in/yarn-tests/
(N.d.). Textilelearner.net. from https://textilelearner.net/classification-of-textile-testing-fiber-testing-yarn-testing-fabric-testing/
Sayed, A. (n.d.). Yarn count: Definition and Types. Blogspot.com. from https://textileapex.blogspot.com/2014/01/yarn-count-types.html
Further reading -
(Part-2) Yarn count - by Direct, indirect method
(Part-3) Yarn count measurement - preparation of hank
(Part-4) Yarn count measurement by wrap, Quadrant balance
(Part-5) Yarn count measurement - Beesley balance
(Part-6) Yarn count measurement - Shirley method
Writer - DSPAT Team