### Stepped or elongated twill

Stepped and elongated twill Stepped or elongated twill

## Stepped twill

• Stepped twill weave is made from the extension of ordinary twill lines or by changing twill angle.
• Ordinary twill is made with 45° twill angle by one step outward and one step upward movement of upcoming marking of twill line.

 X X X X
45° angle of twill

• However, some other angles are also possible to construct twill lines.
• Above 45° and below 45° angled twill are also considered as a stepped twill.
• Below 45°, angle 30°, 20°, and 15° are possible.
• Above 45°, angle 60°, 70°, and 75° are possible.
• To construct an angle of twill of 30° moves 2 steps outward and 1 step upward. (For 2 steps outward and 1 step upward, actually, angle of 27° create, but it is often considered as a 30°.)
 X X X X X X
30° or 27° angle of twill
• To construct an angle of twill of 20° moves 3 steps outward and 1 step upward.
 X X X X X X X X X X X X
20° angle of twill
• To construct an angle of twill of 15° moves 4 steps outward and 1 step upward.
 X X X X X X X X X
15° angle of twill
• To construct an angle of twill of 60° moves 1 step outward and 2 steps upward. (For 1 step outward and 2 steps upward, actually, angle of 63° create, but it is often considered as a 60°.)
 X X X X X X
60° or 63° angle of twill
• To construct an angle of twill of 70° moves 1 step outward and 3 steps upward.
 X X X X X X X X X
70° angle of twill
• To construct an angle of twill of 75° moves 1 step outward and 4 steps upward.
 X X X X X X X X X X X X
75° angle of twill
• (For all 6 twill angles are basic continuous twill. However, all are extensible.)

## Elongated twill

• Elongated twill is basically ordinary twill with some extension and modification.
• Modification or extension in elongated twill from ordinary twill is in the foam of twill angle or thickness of twill lines.
• Elongated twill has a twill angle either below 450 or above  450.

### Construction of Elongated twill

Elongated twill is constructed by extending the points of intersection of warp and weft threads into two or more fixed directions and one thread in the other directions.

Elongated twill is basically constructed in two ways;

#### (i) By using step number -

• To construct elongated twill by using step number, first select size of weave design.
• The size of the weave design depends on the step number of the twill lines.
• If step number is two or four, only odd-numbered ends are possible, for step number three only even-numbered ends are possible.
• i.e. - For step number 2, weave design has 5 ends.
• Then create a twill line with step number 2.

 10 X 9 X X 8 X 7 X X 6 X 5 X X 4 X 3 X X 2 X 1 X X 1 2 3 4 5
• To create elongated twill, create the design of 3/2 2/1 1/1 by considering the first '3' as a basic ordinary twill as the above figure shows. 10 X X 9 X X X X 8 X X 7 X X X X 6 X X 5 X X X X 4 X X 3 X X X X 2 X X 1 X X X X 1 2 3 4 5
3/2 2/1 1/1 5X10 Elongated twill
• (Here, the step number of the produced design automatically becomes two and creates elongated twill.)

#### (ii) By selecting a baseline -

• To construct elongated twill by using baseline, first select size of weave design.
• The size of the weave design depends on the step number of the twill lines.
• If step number is two or four, only odd-numbered ends are possible, for step number three only even-numbered ends are possible.
• The number of picks also depends on the step number.
• The number of picks should be divisible by that step number.
• i.e. - For step number 2, weave design has 5 ends. And Pick number 10 is divisible by 2, 10/2=5. (or for step number 3 picks are 15 so that 15/3=5.)
• Then create a motif like a design for step number 2.

 2 X X X X 1 X X 1 2 3 4
• To complete elongated twill, mark the above motif at a decided twill angle. (or  consider the whole motif as a single mark and make a twill line with that mark/motif.) X X X X X X X X X X X X

 10 X X 9 X X X X 8 X X 7 X X X X 6 X X 5 X X X X 4 X X 3 X X X X 2 X X 1 X X X X 1 2 3 4 5
3/2 2/1 1/1 5X10 Elongated twill
• (Here, the step number of the produced design automatically becomes two and creates elongated twill.)

### Elongated twill are two types

#### (i) Warp way Elongated twill-

• Warp way Elongated twill has a more number of upward steps (warp floats) than outward steps(Weft floats).
• The angle of the warped way elongated twill is above 45°. i.e.- 60°, 70°, and 75°.
• In the case of the repeat size of basic twill is even number, the number of warp yarn in a repeat size of elongated twill is half of the number of warp yarn of basic twill, and the number of weft yarn is the same as the number of weft yarn of basic twill.
• In the case of the repeat size of the basic twill being an odd number, the repeat size of the elongated twill is the same as the basic twill.

 10 X X X 9 X X X X X 8 X X X X 7 X X X X X X 6 X X X X 5 X X X X X 4 X X X 3 X X X X X X 2 X X X X 1 X X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
3/2 2/3 Warp way Elongated twill

#### (ii) Weft way Elongated twill-

• Weft way Elongated twill have a higher number of outward steps than the upward steps.
• The angle of the warped way elongated twill is below 45°. i.e.- 30°, 20°, and 15°.
• In the case of the repeat size of basic twill with an even number, the number of weft yarn in a repeat size of elongated twill is half of the number of weft yarn of the basic twill, and the number of warp yarn is the same as the number of warp yarn of basic twill.
• In the case of the repeat size of the basic twill with an odd number, the repeat size of the elongated twill is the same as the basic twill.

 9 X X X X X 8 X X X X X 7 X X X X X 6 X X X X X 5 X X X X X 4 X X X X X 3 X X X X X 2 X X X X X 1 X X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
3/2 2/3 Weft way Elongated twill

### Drafting plan For Elongated twill

• Elongated twill always has a straight draft.

Questions -

1. What is stepped twill?
2. How stepped twill is made? OR construction of stepped twill.
3. Construction of twill at a different angle.
4. Construction of elongated weave. OR how elongated twill is made?
5. Different types of elongated weave.
6. Which type of draft is used for elongated weave.

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