## Combination twill or Mixed twill

In Combination twill, two different types of continuous twill are combined together by various techniques.

This combination is created by adding alternate ends from two twill designs or by adding alternate picks from two twill designs.

According to these 2 types of combinations create. Mixed twill weave

### Warp way or End and End combination

• For this type of construct twill by picking ends from two designs and combined together.
• Warp way combination twill has divided draft.
• It has an angle of twill less than 45°.
• Here divided draft basically divides the heald shaft according to two main designs.
• Warp-way combination twill is constructed by adding ends from two or more different twills.
• i.e. - Here, 2 different 8X8 twills are combined by pair of 2 ends. Therefore, the mixed twill is 16X8.
 8 X X X X X 7 X X X X X 6 X X X X X 5 X X X X X 4 X X X X X 3 X X X X X 2 X X X X X 1 X X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8X8 First twill

 8 X X X X 7 X X X X 6 X X X X 5 X X X X 4 X X X X 3 X X X X 2 X X X X 1 X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8X8 Second twill

 8 X X X X X X X X X 7 X X X X X X X X X 6 X X X X X X X X X 5 X X X X X X X X X 4 X X X X X X X X X 3 X X X X X X X X X 2 X X X X X X X X X 1 X X X X X X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
16X8 Warp way combined twill

### Weft way or Pick and Pick the combination

• For this type of construct twill by picking picks from two designs and combined them together.
• Weft-way combination twill has a straight draft and the angle of the twill is greater than 45°.
• Weft-way combination twill is constructed by adding picks from two or more different twills.
• i.e. - Here, 2 different 8X8 twills are combined by pair of 2 picks. Therefore, the mixed twill is 8X16.
 8 X X X X X 7 X X X X X 6 X X X X X 5 X X X X X 4 X X X X X 3 X X X X X 2 X X X X X 1 X X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8X8 First twill

 8 X X X X 7 X X X X 6 X X X X 5 X X X X 4 X X X X 3 X X X X 2 X X X X 1 X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8X8 Second twill

 16 X X X X 15 X X X X 14 X X X X X 13 X X X X X 12 X X X X 11 X X X X 10 X X X X X 9 X X X X X 8 X X X X 7 X X X X 6 X X X X X 5 X X X X X 4 X X X X 3 X X X X 2 X X X X 1 X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8X16 Weft way combined twill

### Some basic rules for combined twill

• If two designs from which the combination happens, are equal in repeat size then the combination size is double in Colum wise for warp way combination or double in row-wise for weft way combination.
• i.e. For 4X4 design, warp way combination size is 8X4, or for weft way, combination size is 4X8.
•  (For warp way combination, Numbers of ends = Number of ends in basic design X 2. & Numbers of picks = Number of picks in basic design.
• For the weft way combination, the Number of ends = Number of ends in basic design. & Numbers of picks = Number of picks in basic design X 2. )

#### Construction of Complex Combined twill

• If two designs from which the combination happens, are unequal in repeat size then the combined size is according to the following rule.
• Take the LCM (Lowest common multiple) of both designs' numbers.
• For warp way of combination, double of LCM number in Colum wise and LCM number in row wise.
• For the weft way of combination, double of LCM number row-wise and the LCM number Colum wise.
• i.e. - For 6X6 and 4X4 designs' combination, LCM = 12, so warp way combination size is 24X12 or for weft way combination size is 12X24.
• (For warp way combination, Number of ends = LCM number X 2. & Numbers of picks = LCM Number.
• For weft way combination, Number of ends = LCM Number. & Numbers of picks = LCM Number X 2.)
 4 X X 3 X X 2 X X 1 X X 1 2 3 4
4X4 First twill

 6 X X X 5 X X X 4 X X X 3 X X X 2 X X X 1 X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6
6X6 Second twill

 12 X X X X X X X X X X X X 11 X X X X X X X X X X X X 10 X X X X X X X X X X X X 9 X X X X X X X X X X X X 8 X X X X X X X X X X X X 7 X X X X X X X X X X X X 6 X X X X X X X X X X X X 5 X X X X X X X X X X X X 4 X X X X X X X X X X X X 3 X X X X X X X X X X X X 2 X X X X X X X X X X X X 1 X X X X X X X X X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
24X12 Warp way combined twill

 24 X X X X X X 23 X X X X X X 22 X X X X X X 21 X X X X X X 20 X X X X X X 19 X X X X X X 18 X X X X X X 17 X X X X X X 16 X X X X X X 15 X X X X X X 14 X X X X X X 13 X X X X X X 12 X X X X X X 11 X X X X X X 10 X X X X X X 9 X X X X X X 8 X X X X X X 7 X X X X X X 6 X X X X X X 5 X X X X X X 4 X X X X X X 3 X X X X X X 2 X X X X X X 1 X X X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
12X24 Weft way combined twill

#### More designs from Combined twill

• Here, Mentioned combined or mixed twill is constructed from two different twills. However, a combination of twills is also possible from more than two twills. For example, Mixed twill is constructed from 3 different twills.
• In this case, each twill is required differently from the other. If twill 2 twills are the same, then it is the combination of 2 twills at different ratios of using those twills. Therefore, to construct mixed twill from more than two twills are necessary to differentiate them from each other.
• A combination of more different twills at various ratios is also possible. I.e. for 3 twills combination use the first twill twice, the second twill once, and the third twill twice.
• Different twill is also selected by the same design but different colour fill or according to various yarn fineness, count, or density.
• With respect to the increasing number of combined twill possibility of constructing twill exponentially increase.

References

Miah, M. R. (2013, November 21). Twill Weave. Fibre2fashion.com; Fibre2Fashion. https://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/7165/an-overview-of-twill-weave

Treasure. (2021, February 24). Twill weave - structure, properties, uses & types. TREASURE. https://blog.treasurie.com/twill-weave/

(N.d.-a). Masterclass.com. Retrieved 14 December 2022, from https://www.masterclass.com/articles/what-is-twill-fabric-definition-and-characteristics-of-the-popular-twill-weave

(N.d.-b). Textilelearner.net, from https://textilelearner.net/twill-weave-features-classification-derivatives-and-uses/#:~:text=The%20order%20of%20interlacing%20which,be%20broken%20or%20reversed%20periodically.

Questions -

1. Construct warp way or end-and-end combination twill.
2. Construct a weft way and pick & pick the combination twill.
3. What are the basic rules for combined twill?
4. Construction of complex combined twill.
5. Different designs of combined twill.

Writer -
DSPAT Team

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