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Introduction, scope and classification of Fabric Structure

Introduction of Fabric Structure

  • The fabric structure is basically given an idea of interlacements of warp and weft floats in the fabric surface. Warp threads are run longitudinally along the length of the fabric and weft threads are run transversely across the fabric. In weave design, either warp float over weft or weft float over warp thread. 

  • Studying fabric design, types and properties of a fabric structure is useful. Fabric structure on theoretically made from design, draft, and peg plan units. The design shows interlacements, the draft represents the motion of the heald shaft during fabric production and the peg plan represents picking or its related term.
  • With the help of the Design, draft, and peg plan various kinds of fabrics can be generated. These can be generated on simple paper by drawing cells like boxes and in point paper. However, in a modern way, lots of software is available for this design, draft, and peg plan. For some of them, the software is very useful to draw the structure and view its appearance on the fabric. 

Scope of Learning Fabric structure

  • Every loom operation needs data to control the heald shaft and other components of the loom to create a design in fabric and these various designs only come when the structure of the fabric is known.
  • For bobby, jacquard, and another electronic loom set of data for specific software required to generate proper interlacements of threads.
  • Knowledge of fabric structure is useful to understand fabric properties and their application.
  • In the research-based application and innovative design in textiles, Fabric structure provides vital and sharp information.
  • Textile design studios and textile art and some other business or start-up run only on the basis of the fabric structure.
  • Swing skills, stitching skills, thread properties, construction schedules, the understanding feel of fabric, and the construction of various fabrics are also learned from fabric structure.

Classification of the Fabric structure

  • The woven structure of the fabric is mainly classified into two ways, one is a simple structure and another is a compound structure. 
  • The simple structure is a set of threads that are parallel to each other and construct a weave only by interlacements. (Warp and weft threads are perpendicular to each other while neighbouring warps or wefts are parallel to each other.) Warp and weft threads are playing equally important roles in fabric properties. 
  • In compound structure, sets of threads are more than and each set has a different important role in the structure. Two basic sets of threads construct the body or ground of the weave design while others construct figures or ornamentation. Due to figuring and ornamentation, this set of threads may or may not parallel to neighbouring threads.
  • To represent interlacements of threads on paper, linear and canvas methods are useful. In these methods, vertical lines indicate warps and horizontal lines indicate wefts. In the linear method, square cells are used to represent the design. Marking 'X' in a square indicates warp over the weft and '.' or remain portion indicates weft over the warp thread. In the canvas method, verticals and horizontal lines interact with each other as thread interlace.
  • To show any weave only one repeat unit is known as the design of that weave. Repetition of design creates the appearance of the fabric. For construction, any kind of weave design is vital, and playing with the design going to create different effects on the fabric.
Textile Weave represent on Point paper

-Weave represent on Point paper

Textile Weave represent on Canvas method
-Weave represent on Canvas method

  1. Design
  2. Draft or Drawing plan
  3. Peg or Lifting plan
Questions -
  1. How is a fabric made?
  2. In which type the fabric is classified?
  3. Which are the methods to build a fabric?
  4. Which thread is used in the loom to weave a fabric?
  5. What is required to form a fabric?
  6. Prior to the weaving process which processes are needed to build fabric?
  7. What is weaving preparatory?
  8. What is the winding process? Why do we need this process?
  9. What is the warping process?
  10. Which are the different types of warping? 
  11. Can we make fabric without the warping process?
  12. What is the sizing process?
  13. Classification of looms?
  14. How fabric is made by the knitting process?
  15. Which are different machines used to make knitted fabric?
  16. Which are the basic elements of knitting machines?
  17. What is non-woven fabric?
  18. How non-woven fabric is made?


Br├╝nler, R., Hild, M., Aibibu, D., & Cherif, C. (2016). Fibre-based hybrid structures as scaffolds and implants for regenerative medicine. In Smart Textiles and their Applications (pp. 241–256). Elsevier.

Fabric structures. (n.d.).  from

Fabrics. (n.d.). , from

TexNim [@TexNim]. (2013, October 7). WOVEN FABRIC STRUCTURE Part 1. Youtube. 

Further reading -

Writer - DSPAT Team

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