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Design, Draft and Peg-plan of fabric structure

Design, draft, and peg plan of the Fabric structure 

(Introduction of fabric structure part 2)

  • To represent the woven design and structure, three basic elements are used.

  1. Design
  2. Draft or Drawing plan
  3. Peg or Lifting plan

Design, Draft and Peg-Plan
Design, Draft, and Peg-Plan

Design

  • Interlacement of warp and weft threads in the fabric surface, their position, and their one repeat pattern are indicated in a number of squares. This set of squares is known as the design of the fabric. 
  • In these squares, the vertical direction indicates the warp threads and the horizontal direction indicates the weft threads. 
  • A blank square indicates that the weft floats above the warp and the ‘X’ mark in the square indicates that the warp floats above the weft.
  • Design is made according to the requirements of the fabrics. 
  • Plain, Twill, and Satin/Sateen are the main or basic types of fabric design. 
  • The design shows the interlacements of warp and weft of a particular pattern Generally, Design is one repeat of the whole pattern of fabrics. 
  • To show the view of fabric (fabric’s look) Design should repeat multiple times and then zoom in. (For more specific results use software i.e. - NED GRAPHICS, ARACHNE, and TEXTRON)

Plain weave
Design of weave


 

Draft or Drawing plan

  • All the ends used for design, are passes from which the heald shaft or the manner of drawing the ends through the heald eyes is represented by the drawing plan. The draft shows the number of heald shafts required for a given particular weave design.
  • The choice of the type of drafting plan depends upon the type of fabric woven. In draft horizontal spaces indicates the heald shaft number and vertical spaces indicate the number of ends.
For drawing draft for a given design, 
  • Take the first end from the design and give it the first heald shaft. (Mark 'X' at 1st place of H1, Here H1 is represented heald shaft number 1) 
  • Then take the second end from the design and check whether it has the same interlacement as the first end interlacement or is different from it If same as the first end interlacement so mark 'X' in 2nd place of H1 and if it is a different pattern then mark 'X' at 2nd place of H2. (Here take new heald shaft H2 for a second number of the end). 
  • Then take a third number of the end from the design and check whether it has the same interlacement with the 1st and 2nd end or has a different interlacement. 
  • If same with 1st so mark 'X' at 3rd place and H1, If same with 2nd so mark 'X' at 3rd place and H2, and different then mark 'X' at 3rd place and H3. (For each different interlacement of the end take a new heald shaft).
  • In this way, take one by one end and check whether it same as the previous anyone or not. If the interlacement is the same as any previously taken end/ends then mark at same heald shaft taken for it, if a different interlacement then takes a new heald shaft. 
  • This is done for thought first to last end/warp of a given design. 

Design and its draft

As per the above technique, the draft plan is divided in the following manner. 

(i) Straight (ii) Pointed (iii) Skip and sateen (iv) Broken (v) Divided (vi) Grouped (vii) Curved (viii) Combination


(1) Straight draft

The straight draft is the most common and widely used draft because it is simplest than other drafts. 

In a straight draft first ends pass from the first number heald shaft, the second ends pass from the second heald shaft, and so on. As the ends number increase, the heald shaft number will also increase from the first number of ends and heald shaft to the last number of ends.

Peg-plan/ lifting plan is the same as the design for the straight draft. This is happening due to the inclined line of the draft reflecting the design in the peg plan.

Twill, satin/sateen, and a special kind of combination of designs have this draft.

H8








X

H7







X


H6






X



H5





X




H4




X





H3



X






H2


X







H1

X









1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8


 (2) Skip and sateen draft

In skip draft, the number of heald shafts may be either twice or more than the minimum required for a weave. 

Skip draft is mainly used for a certain type of fabric which have heavy warp thread density. Due to the heavy warp thread used friction between threads is higher. 

To reduce this abrasion use more heald frames than the minimum recommended. 

Skipping draft means taking a heald shaft alternative to reduce overcrowding between shafts. 

For the alternative selection of shafts, the heald frames are divided into two groups. 

All even-numbered warp threads are drawn through the first group of heald frames and all odd-numbered warp ends are drawn through the second group of heald frames.

Here, The Sateen draft has a draft pattern that is similar to the sateen design (sateen weave). The main difference between skip and sateen is that, Skip draft is used for certain plain and twill weave with repeat up to 4X4, While Sateen draft is used for certain designs which have repeat size more than 5X5.

(Here, a Sateen draft is a type of draft which have a pattern of sateen or looks like sateen, Though Sateen weave is completely different from this.)

H8






X



H7



X






H6








X

H5





X




H4


X







H3







X


H2




X





H1

X









1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

           

(3) Pointed draft

 The pointed draft is suitable for weaves such as pointed twill, diamond weaves, and ordinary types of honeycombs. 

Up to half of the pointed draft is straight and then it is reversed in a warped way. By doing this it creates a '^' shape so it is known as the pointed draft. 

The pointed draft shows that the up-to-halfway ends pattern varies and then the same with previous ends but in opposite directions. (Like 1,2,3 and 4 have different pattern and 5,6,7 have 3,2,1 pattern)

H4




X



H3



X


X


H2


X




X

H1

X







1

2

3

4

5

6

 

(4) Broken draft

The broken draft is mainly used for weaves such as herringbone twills. 

It has a pattern like a pointed draft with some broken points. This broken draft is sometimes achieved by reversing or swiping ends in the warp direction.

H4




X



X


H3



X





X

H2


X



X




H1

X





X




1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8


 

(5) Divided draft

The divided draft is mainly used for weaves that have two series of warp threads such as terry, double cloth, warp-backed cloth, etc. 

This draft basically divided ends into two manners.

To produce this kind of fabric design all ends of the design are divided into two groups known as face warps and back warps. 

The back warps mark remains in the face warp marking for the heald shaft. Once the face warp takes heald shafts then the back warp starts taking heald shafts from where the face warp's heald shaft number stopped. 

H12







X








X


H11





X








X




H10



X








X






H9

X








X









1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

H8
















X

H7














X



H6












X





H5










X







H4








X









H3






X











H2




X













H1


X
















1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

 

(6) Grouped draft

The grouped draft is mainly used for fabrics that have stripe and check designs with combinations. With the help of this draft, two different stripes of fabric are produced. 

The number of shafts in the draft depends upon the number of stripes and the warp repeat of the weave of each stripe. 

For designs in which, Taking heald shaft is completely grouped heald shaft number 1-6 have commonly repeated drafts and heald shaft number 7-12 have commonly repeated drafts but are different from H1-H6. 

H8









X




X




H7










X




X



H6











X




X


H5












X




X

H4




X




X









H3



X




X










H2


X




X











H1

X




X













1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16


(7) Combined draft

This kind of draft is mainly used; when a certain type of fabric with a combination of different designs has to produce.

The combined draft is making also by combining different drafts. It is the most complicated draft of all and is only used when some technological or economical factors are necessary. 

In this draft straight and curved drafts, grouped and straight drafts, skip and pointed drafts, and Broken and Sateen drafts are used for combination.

 

 

Peg plan or Lifting plan

To represent the Lifting order of heald shafts or understand the movement of heald shafts for allowing picking peg-plan is drawn.

The peg or lifting plan provides useful information to the weaver. In a peg plan, the vertical spaces indicate the heald shafts' numbers and the horizontal spaces indicate the number of weft threads. 

Peg-plan is completely dependent on design and draft. The Heald shaft pattern is extended from draft to peg plan and the picks pattern is extended from design to peg plan.


To draw a peg plan,

(a) Take H1, extend it up to peg plan space, and extend projection of particular end from design. (This end is H1's end in design) In all squares, where this meets mark 'X'.

(b) Then take H2, extend it up to peg plan space, and extend the projection of a particular end from the design. (This ends H2's end in design) In all squares, where this meets mark 'X'.

(c) In this way, take one by one heald shafts and marks in peg plan 'X' according to its end interlacement in design.

For the Straight draft, the Peg plan is the same as the given design because in this case, each end has a separate heald shaft.

So as the heald shaft varies ends interlacement also varies. It is also true that for a straight draft, there is no required peg plan. As mentioned above design indicates a peg plan in this case. 


References

Br├╝nler, R., Hild, M., Aibibu, D., & Cherif, C. (2016). Fibre-based hybrid structures as scaffolds and implants for regenerative medicine. In Smart Textiles and their Applications (pp. 241–256). Elsevier.

Fabric structures. (n.d.). Designingbuildings.co.uk.  from https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Fabric_structures

Fabrics. (n.d.). Tensilefabric.co.uk. , from https://www.tensilefabric.co.uk/fabric-structures/fabrics.aspx

TexNim [@TexNim]. (2013, October 7). WOVEN FABRIC STRUCTURE Part 1. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=34P4sR6tP7M 


Questions -

  1. Why do we need fabric structure to study?
  2. What are the basic elements of fabric structure?
  3. What is design?
  4. Which are the basic types of fabric design?
  5. Which are the different types of design?
  6. What is a draft/drawing plan?
  7. Which are the different types of drafts?
  8. Why straight draft is used more compared to other drafts?
  9. Is it convenient to always use a straight draft?
  10. What is the limit of heald shafts in power loom, dobby loom, and jacquard loom?
  11. What is the peg plan/lifting plan?
  12. Can we draw a draft from the peg plan and design?

Writer - DSPAT Team

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